Free Essay on American History:
The successful revolt of 13 British colonies in America has become extremely important historical event. Over time, Great Britain recovered from the loss of their possessions but, on the other side of the Atlantic, a new State, the United States of America was created.
At the end of the XVIII century, nearly 3 million people lived in the colonies, mostly from Britain. Mainly, small settlements flourished; the largest city was Philadelphia with a population of 40 thousand people; in the second largest city New York, there were 25 thousand people. The northern lands were cultivating by traders, fishermen, and hunters, on the southern fertile lands the planters were becoming rich, but the bulk of the population were farmers tilling their own land and relying only on themselves. Namely, they were destined to play a crucial role in the coming revolution and to put the foundations of the American nation (Tindall, 2004).
Residents of America are accustomed to the fact that their words are listened to, though between electoral authorities and the colonists of the great men of London are often encountered friction.
It was believed that all the goods had to be delivered from Britain or other colonies. To make foreign goods more expensive than the English one, London imposed a customs duty on them. The colonial lands were considered as a source of raw materials for British industry, therefore metropolis opposed the development of local production. It is clear that in resource-rich America with its growing entrepreneurial population, the situation like this could no longer continue, and a victory in the Seven Years War precipitated the crisis approach (Tindall 2004).
Eventually, in July 1776 the Continental Congress voted for the department and adopted the Declaration of Independence, whose author was Thomas Jefferson. The Declaration condemned the tyranny of George III and the right of all people to «life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness» (Reynolds, 2001). Thirteen former colonies have become known as the United States of America.
After an unsuccessful attempt to seize the city of Charleston (South Carolina), the British moved their forces to the north, and from July 1776, General Howe won several victories taking New York and causing a number of significant attacks on the troops of Washington, who had to back down over the river Delaware. Washington did not have a special talent commander and his men could not compete with regular British forces, but this strong man will never give up; in addition, the fighting on foreign territory British began to have problems with supplies and replenishment (Reynolds, 2001).
Washington raised the morale of its forces, when once again crossed over the river Delaware and caught, by surprise, almost thousandth enemy garrisons on Christmas night 1776. However, for the following year a success was again on the side of General Howe, Philadelphia captors. The army of Washington strongly thinned out that frosty winter.
The British was failed through desperately poor planning. While the corpus Howe went to Philadelphia, another general John Bergoyn, hoping to connect him to the north of New York, led his army from Canada to the city of Albany on the terrain, getting in rebel ambush. As a result, the British all into encirclement of the enemy’s superior forces and lay down their arms under the Saratoga (Reynolds, 2001).
Inspired by the successes of the rebels, the French entered the war on America’s side. Soon the Spaniards and Dutch followed their example. The British, have lost their supremacy at sea and had to fight on several fronts. George III was already ready to make concessions but the Americans needed only independence.
In any case, Britain continued the war. Its troops withdrew from Philadelphia but kept New York; on the northern front, there were fighting with varying success. In 1778, the British moved to the new strategy. Its goal was the seizure of the southern lands with plantations of tobacco, rice, and indigo.
The Declaration was presented to the Congress with recommendations for its approval. The fight continued in Congress, although it has already radically different from the debate that «Resolution Independence» sparked in early June, as the alignment of forces has changed significantly in favor of the radicals. Many researchers have noted the nature of the discussions as friendly. Moreover, the delegates acknowledged masterpiece of the Declaration and adopted it, making only two principal amendments. One of them was fully justified, because ultimately it led to mitigate the unnecessarily harsh accusations against the British people about his lack of support in the struggle of colonists (Reynolds, 2001).
The second amendment was much more significant. They spoke about the paragraphs of the Declaration, where Thomas Jefferson, in the form of one of the charges brought to George III, condemned slavery and the slave trade. This item stated that the English King waged cruel war against human nature itself, violating its most sacred rights of life & liberty in the persons of distant people who never offended him, captivating & carrying them into slavery in another hemisphere, or to incur miserable death in their transportation thither. This piratical warfare, the opprobrium of infidel powers, is the warfare of the Christian king of Great Britain. Determined to keep open a market where MEN should be bought & sold, he has prostituted his negative for suppressing every legislative attempt to prohibit or restrain this execrable commerce (Tindall, 2004).
The Constitution was adopted in 1787 and was the result of many political compromises, and its main purpose was to bond states more strongly. The adoption of the constitution was the logical conclusion of the American Revolution.
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