Free research paper sample on Bluetooth :
There are many different ways that electronics can connect to one another. Electronics such as computers entertainment systems and cordless telephones consist of a number of different parts and pieces which represent a community of devices. These different devices make connections using wires, cables, radio signals, infrared beams, etc. which all have their own types of connectors plugs and protocols.
Today’s electronics have become so confusing to set up because of the wide variety of cables and connectors involved that even expert technicians must occasionally make a second attempt to correctly wire a complete system. This confusion has spawned research in new modes of communication amongst the electronic parts of our modern life.
The Special Interest Group (SIG), a group of electronics manufacturers including companies like 3Com, Agere, Ericsson, IBM, Intel, Microsoft, Motorola, Nokia, Toshiba, and hundreds of Associate and Adopter member companies has developed a standard called Bluetooth to eliminate the confusion involved in electronics systems. This standard allows any sort of electronic equipment to establish its own connections without the use of wires, cables and without any direct input from a user. The SIG is determined to have Bluetoot’s radio communications eventually replace the use of wires for connections between peripherals, telephones and computers.
There are already two ways to avoid using wires. One alternative is to transfer information between components via light beams in the infrared spectrum. Infrared is used in most television remotes and with a system called IrDA (Infrared Data Association) which is used to connect some computers to peripheral devices and also to send data between some cellular phones. There are two main drawbacks of infrared communications. The first drawback is that it is a “line of sight” technology meaning for example, you must point the remote at the television in order for a reaction to take place. The other drawback is that most infrared connections use “one to one” technology which means that they can only make one connection at a time. The second alternative to wires is cable synchronizing. Synchronizing is when you connect a PDA to a computer normally using a cable, then a button is pushed and the data from the PDA is compared to the data from the computer. Finding the right cables for synchronization can some times be a hassle though.
Bluetooth operates on a 2.45 gigahertz “freeband” that international agreement has set aside for the communication of industrial, scientific and medical devices (ISM). This is the same band used by many wireless household devices. Bluetooth main accomplishment is being able to operate on the same band and in the same room as these household devices. Avoiding interference was the most crucial part of the design process.
There are a few concepts that Bluetooth relies on to avoid interference. One is that Bluetooth sends out a mere one milli-watt signal compared to cell phones which transmit at up to three watts. This limits its range to about ten meters while still allowing it to communicate through walls and control several devices in different rooms. The most important technique that is used by Bluetooth to avoid interference is called spread-spectrum frequency hopping. When devices that are equipped with Bluetooth technology come within range of one another, they communicate with each other to decide whether or not they can share data or if one must control the other. As soon as this conversation takes place the Bluetooth systems create what is called a personal-area network (PAN). After this personal-area network, or “piconet”, has been established it begins to randomly hop between seventy-nine randomly chosen frequencies on the ISM band at a rate of 1,600 times per second. This drastically minimizes the chance of two networks interfering with one another. This technique also ensures that other household wireless will not affect Bluetooth devices since interference would last for only a minute fraction of a second and would go unnoticed.
The base band protocol for the Bluetooth chip is a combination of circuit and packet switching, which makes it possible to transmit both voice and data with the same device. The Bluetooth chip has two channels. One channel is capable of transmitting a 64 Kbit/s synchronous (voice) link. The other channel which is an asynchronous channel can support a 721Kbit/s asymmetric link in either direction. Both channel one and two are transmitted while allowing 57.6Kbit/s of information in the return direction. The actual link range is anywhere from 10cm to 10m between devices, however links can be extended to 100m+ by increasing the transmit power.
Data terminal equipment (DTE) uses a method of establishing a temporary full-duplex connection to another data station known as circuit switching. Once a connection is made the channel and the bandwidth provided by the switching network become exclusive to the equipment being used until the connection is broken by one of the stations. Once a switched connection is made all of the data being communicated is transmitted on the same channel for the entire transmission. No time buffering is necessary making this method of exchanging data very effective when you are dealing with high data transfer rates.
Packet switching is another method of data communications that until recently had been the most advanced method of data switching technology used for Wide Area Networks. Packet switching breaks down the information being sent into units of variable length known as “packets.” Breaking the information down in to packets makes it possible to have multiple users on the same channel. Packets of information are assembled and disassembled by a P.A.D. (packet assembler/ disassembler). These packets of information do not necessarily end up at the receiving end in the same order in which they are sent, nor do they take the same line of transmission. The packets are gathered at the receiving node and placed in their original order.
Bluetooth technology seems to be a very important step in communications field. Being able to update the files in your personal computer through your laptop, or access the Internet through your phone or digital planner can prove to be almost a necessity in big business today. This however is only the first step. The kind of technological advances that we can expect to see in the not so distant future will probably be shocking.
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