Nowadays, a research paper on long-term care topic is more and more urgent. As the population is growing older, almost everyone has a parent or relative or himself requires long-term care.
In general, the term “long-term care” includes a wide range of services provided to individuals with chronic illness or having disability for a long period of time. However, usually long-term care refers to assistance in the following areas:
- Assistance in the basic activity, such as washing, dressing, getting out of bed, going to bathroom, eating, and also helping with incontinence.
- Homework, such as cleaning and cooking.
- Personal services, such as shopping, money management cases, medication.
In order to determine the need for assistance in one of these areas, the ability to perform activities of daily living (Activities of Daily Living, ADL) is often used for assessing. Researchers believe that the inability to perform some or all of the following six basic types of activity is the best evidence of the presence of physical or mental disorders.
- Washing means to open the tap water, set the desired level of temperature and water pressure, to get into a bath or a shower, wash your entire body, to get out of the bath or shower, dry off completely, drain the tub.
- Dressing implies taking clothes from the closet or dresser, dressing, including actions to fastening, fastening clothes and putting on dentures.
- Transportation means to move the body from one surface or position to another, such as from a bed to a chair, from the chair to the standing position.
- Toileting implies going to bathroom when feeling the need, to undo/remove clothing, moving to the bathroom, to bring the clothes in order, wash your hands, get out of the bathroom.
- Feeding means to take food and drink from containers and eat with your fingers and cutlery, including activity to cut the meat and the ability to spread bread with butter.
- Control over the bladder and intestines function implies the ability to control the functioning of your bowel and bladder; or, failing such control, making all necessary actions for personal hygiene (including caring for catheter or colostomy bags).
Local residential community care facilities, also known as the assisted living facilities, living in adult family/foster homes, or congregate homes are an increasing sector of long-term care service system.
The services at home or in the community provide a minimum level of care in order to allow people to remain living in their own houses. Examples of such services – centers for the elderly, “mobile kitchen,” transportation, therapy services, home cleaning and household work.
Private room in a nursing home can cost an average of $ 200 per day, which amounts to more than $ 74,000 per year, while visiting family doctor costs an average of $ 20 per hour. In addition, it is estimated the average annual cost of home care in the United States in 30 years will rise to $ 190,000, and it is the costs for one person only. The cost of different types of services varies greatly depending on the level and duration of care.
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