Nepotism research paper:
Nepotism (from Lat. Nepos, Nepotis – grandson, nephew) is a favoritism (e.g., when assigning to a post) rendered to relatives or friends, without taking into account their professional skills. In a narrower sense, it is distribution by popes profitable positions, the highest ecclesiastical titles, or lands to close relatives in order to strengthen their power. The phenomenon was widespread in the XV-XVI centuries.
Nepotism originated in the Middle Ages, when the popes, concerning about the consolidation of their power, began distributing the highest church positions, primarily cardinal’s hat, to their relatives. The first were their nephews, hence the name of nepotism. Later, especially in the XV-XVI centuries, it was illegitimate children. For example, Alexander VI made his son Cesare Cardinal, and Pope Paul III – his grandchildren.
Nepotism had been overcome to the XVIII century. On the orders of Pope Innocent XII, in the College of Cardinals there could be only one Nepos. By the XIX century, nepotism in the church hierarchy had been gradually eroded.
Nepotism reached its climax in the Renaissance, when the popes became the Italian princes and sought to acquire for their numerous progeny principalities and duchies. There appeared whole “papal” dynasty, such as the Orsini family, Conti della Rovere, Medici, Borgia, Piccolomini, Savelli. Later came the term “black nobility”: the descendants of Nepos, who became princes or dukes, such as Boncompagni, Borghese, Barberini, Pamphili, Chigi, Odescalchi, Ludovisi, Albani, Ruspoli, Ruffo, and many others.
In the modern world, experts also note the existence of nepotism. In one form or another it is peculiar to the vast majority of countries. Policymakers usually cannot transfer its power directly to children, but they use the opportunity to provide their close relatives, such as leadership positions in major business structures. Harm of nepotism is that person is appointed to a new position, without passing the professional selection and often not being a good specialist. The relevant UN conventions nepotism – a kind of corruption.
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