Research paper on opium addiction is one of the most actual topics college students write their research papers on. Therefore, you can freely choose this topic for you research proposal.
Opium poppy was likely one of the earliest drug used by mankind. Preserved clay tablets of the Sumerians culture from 5 millennium BC show the prescriptions and recommendations for preparation of opium.
Use of opium in medicine and for entertainment purposes was widespread among Muslims in the Middle East. Currently, the use of opiates among Muslims is punishable less than alcohol. Arab traders brought opium to China and India in the IX century, and opium smoking became a common practice in China. Opium addiction in China has been identified as a problem with the first edict against opium, which was published in 1729.
By that time, China has already so many opium addicts that need for opium remained very high. Contrary to the ban on the import of opium to China, the British continued to exchange Indian opium for Chinese tea, and it caused the Opium War between China and Britain in the middle of the XIX century. Opium addiction was a serious problem in China at the beginning of XIX century.
In 1805 in Europe, the German chemist Serturner extracts the first opium alkaloid, giving it the name of morphine on behalf of the Greek god of sleep Morphine. Morphine is the main active chemical in opium (codeine is another opioid found in opium), it is 10 times stronger than opium. Since that time, morphine has been used for medical purposes, and the invention of syringe made morphine injection popular and opened the era of drug addiction in Europe and the United States. Morphine administered via injection, having strong analgesic effect, became universally applicable means. At the same time, the problem on morphine withdrawal syndrome became obvious.
The drug was used for the anesthesia of severe injuries in the soldiers during the American Civil War by both belligerents. Dependence on morphine in the soldiers was so strong that after a while it became known as “the soldier’s disease.” In 1874, British chemist Alder Wright discovered a new chemical compound, based on the conversion of morphine – diacetylmorphine. Then Wright’s discovery was left unattended. In 1898, a German pharmacist Hendrych Drezer (aspirin inventor), has reinvented a chemical compound and found that it is 10 times stronger than morphine. The effect of this drug was so powerful that it was perceived as a medicine with heroic abilities and was called heroin. In became very popular drug for medicine use, but even soon enough more strong heroin addiction led to the cessation of its use.
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