Free research paper on Tidal Energy:
Tidal energy is a renewable source of energy, which is produced by the surge of ocean waters during the rise and fall of tides.
For centuries, people have speculated on the cause of tides. Today we know for sure that a powerful natural phenomenon is a rhythmic movement of marine water caused by the force of attraction of the Moon and the Sun. Since the Sun is 400 times further from Earth, much smaller mass of the Moon affects the Earth pods twice as much as the mass of the Sun. Therefore, most tides are lunar.
In the vast sea rises and falls alternate each other theoretically every 6 hours 12 minutes 30 seconds. When the Moon, the Sun, and the Earth are on a line (the so-called syzygy), the Sun increases the moon attraction and then comes the strong tide (spring tide, or big water). When the sun is at right angle to the Earth-Moon line (Quadrature), there is a weak tide (neap or low water). Strong and weak tides alternate each seven days.
However, the true course of the ebb and flow is complex. It is influenced by the motion of celestial bodies, the nature of the shoreline, water depth, ocean currents, and wind. The highest and most powerful tidal waves occur in shallow and narrow bays or estuaries of the rivers that flow into the seas and oceans. The tidal wave of Indian Ocean goes against the flow of the Ganges at a distance of 250 km from its mouth. Tidal wave of Atlantic Ocean extends for 900 km up the Amazon river. In enclosed seas, such as the Black and the Mediterranean, there are small tidal wave with height of 50-70 cm.
It is estimated that potentially tides can bring to humanity about 70 million billion kilowatt-hours per year. For comparison, that is about as much as capable of providing proven reserves of coal and lignite, taken together. The entire U.S. economy in 1977 was based on the production of 200 billion kilowatt-hours, the entire economy of the Soviet Union the same year – 1150 billion. Figuratively speaking, the tides alone could bring prosperity to the world of thirty thousand modern “America” at the most efficient use of the tides.
Tidal power plants in some areas could reach 2-20 MW. First offshore tidal power plant with capacity of 635 kW was built in 1913 in the Bay of Dee near Liverpool. In 1935, a tidal power plant construction started in the United States. The Americans blocked the part on the east coast of the Passamaquoddy bay, spent $ 7 million, but the work had to be stopped because of an inconvenient for the construction, too deep and soft seabed.
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