Free sample essay on Korean War:
Two Koreas and two completely different governments lead to one deadly war. The Korean War is sometimes referred as the “Forgotten War.” Since the 1400’s either Japan or China has conquered Korea. From 1910 to 1945, Korea was completely under Japanese control. Then, after World War II Korea was on its own. The people had no government, no money, and no navy or army to protect their country. Due to the lack of organization that Korea had, it sparked attention from other powerful nations to conquer.
On January 12, 1950, the U.S. Secretary of State, Dean Acheron, addressed the National Press Club in Washington D.C. He made the announcement that, in the line with the U.S. policy of containing communism in a certain geographical boundaries. The defense perimeter in the Pacific would run from Aleutians, off Alaska, down Japan, the Ryukyu’s Islands and the Philippines. The countries lying beyond the perimeter would have to rely upon their own resources to prevent any communist advances. To the Korean people this meant that the fate of their country was to be left to them.
The speech was greeted with horror by the government of South Korea. The government feared that the military power of the communist government would take over the Democratic republic of North Korea. The North Korean government believed that the refusing of the country under communist control could be achieved without interference of the United States.
On June 25, the United States was caught unprepared. As the North Korean troops advanced into the South to meet with the anti-government forces within the country. The United States President Harry S. Truman met up with his advisors to decide what to do. The policy formed a few months earlier was reversed and the United States pledged to provide military support to the government in the South.
The Korean City of Pusan was very important during the Korean War. It was a perfect place for the United States military force to land troops and supplies and to use as a base for carrying on a war in Korea. On July 5, when the North Korean force that had been sent to capture Pusan reached the place where Smith’s troops were waiting, the North Koreans did not hesitate to fight. Within a few hours, Smith and his men were in full retreat; they lost more than one-third of their men. The United States had been beaten in its first encounter with North Korean troops.
Then the Twenty-fourth division arrived in Korea. It was under the command of Major General William Dean. He quickly went into action and placed his soldiers in positions to ward off oncoming North Korean troops. The Twenty-fourth division was soon to find themselves outnumbered and with few or no weapons to fight off enemy tanks. They were unable to stand against the North Koreans, so they were pushed back in retreat. General Dean was cut off from escape and was captured.
Without the command of General Dean, the soldiers of the Twenty-fourth Division managed to hold off the North Korean advances for several days. More and more U.S. troops landed in Pusan. These troops were under the command of Lieutenant General Walton Walker and were called the “Eighth Army.” They formed a ring around Pusan. The North Korean soldiers were almost successful in pushing trough the lines, but the American soldiers managed to fight off the North Koreans. Then, General MacArthur, who on July 7th had been appointed Supreme Commander of United Nations forces, made a move that suddenly changed the course of the war.
General MacArthur had worked out a plan for the United Nations forces to move into South Korea behind the North Korean army that was advancing in to Pusan. This would cut off the North Korean army from its source of supplies. MacArthur planned to land troops at the port city of Inchon on Korea’s west coast, but there were many risks to his plan. North Korea had captured Inchon, and North Korean troops were stationed there. This meant the United Nations landing force would have to fight its way to shore. The channel was narrow and twisted. If the North Koreans had mined the channel with floating explosives, ships carrying United Nations troops would be damaged or sunk. Because of these problems, the generals and admirals in charge of the U.S. Army, Navy, and Marine Corps were apposed to MacArthur’s plan. For six weeks they and MacArthur argued over it. During that time, the United Nations forces around Pusan were fighting to hold off the North Koreans. Finally, MacArthur got his way. Troops and ships were assembled and the landing force sailed to its target.
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