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Free Research Paper on Networking

Free research paper sample on Networking:

Ethernet is a physical and data link layer technology for LAN networking. When it first began to be widely deployed in the 1980s, Ethernet supported a maximum theoretical data rate of 10 megabits per second (Mbps). More recently, Fast Ethernet standards have extended traditional Ethernet technology to 100 Mbps peak, and Gigabit Ethernet technology extends performance up to 1000 Mbps. Gigabit Ethernet, a transmission technology based on the Ethernet frame format and protocol used in local area networks (LANs), provides a data rate of 1 billion bits per second (one gigabit). Gigabit Ethernet is defined in the IEEE 802.3 standard and is currently being used as the backbone in many enterprise networks.

Higher-level network protocols like Internet Protocol use Ethernet as their transmission medium. Data travels over Ethernet in the form of frames. The run length of Ethernet cables is limited (to roughly 100 meters), but various special-purpose devices exist that make Ethernet a cost-effective option for networking an entire large school or office building.

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In the mid-1990s, Fast Ethernet technology matured and met its design goals of a) increasing the performance of traditional Ethernet while b) avoiding the need to completely re-cable existing Ethernet networks. Fast Ethernet comes in two major varieties:
100Base-T (using unshielded twisted pair cable)
100Base-FX (using fiber optic cable)
By far the most popular of these is 100Base-T, a standard that includes 100Base-TX (Category 5 UTP), 100Base-T2 (Category 3 or better UTP), and 100Base-T4 (100Base-T2 cabling modified to include two additional wire pairs).

Whereas Fast Ethernet improved traditional Ethernet from 10 Megabit to 100 Megabit speed, Gigabit Ethernet boasts the same order-of-magnitude improvement over Fast Ethernet by offering speeds of 1000 Megabits (1 Gigabit). Gigabit Ethernet was first made to travel over optical and copper cabling, but the 1000Base-T standard successfully supports it as well. 1000Base-T uses Category 5 cabling similar to 100 Mbps Ethernet, although achieving gigabit speed requires the use of additional wire pairs.

LANs
A LAN (also known as: local area network) helps with the sharing of resources like files, printers, games or other applications. A LAN provides networking capabilities to a group of computers in close range such as in an office building, a school, or a home. In simple terms, a LAN is a something that can help connect a group of computers in close proximity and allows all these connected computers to share files. A LAN often in turn will connect to other LANs and to the Internet or a WAN. Most LANs are built with relatively inexpensive hardware such as Ethernet cables, network adapters, and hubs. Wireless and other more advanced LAN hardware options are also available.

WLAN
Wireless Local Area Network is one of the fastest growing sectors in the computing industry. WLAN provide flexibility, convenience, and productivity. Wireless LANs are a good way of providing access to network resources without the hassle of wires.

VLAN
A VLAN is where a group of PCs, servers and other network resources that perform as if they were linked to a single, network segment – even though they may not be, they will act as if they were. For example, all marketing personnel may be spread throughout a building. Yet if they are all assigned to a single VLAN, they can share resources and bandwidth as if they were attached to the same segment (see Figure 1).
VLANs offer an effective solution to swamped routers and broadcast storms. By limiting the distribution of broadcast, multicast and unicast traffic, they can help free up bandwidth, reduce the need for expensive and complicated routing between switched networks, and get rid of the danger of broadcast storms. With these advantages, VLANs do up many of the key advantages of LAN routing, but with greater flexibility, performance, simplicity and affordability.

There are also specialized operating system software used to configure a LAN. For example, most or Microsoft Windows provide a software package called Internet Connection Sharing ICS that supports controlled access to resources on the LAN.

Windows NT vs. Netware
After a little research on the differences between Windows NT vs Netware, I have come up with some solutions from a web sauce that explains that Microsoft Windows NT Server 4.0 Is 25.5% Faster Than Novell NetWare 5 as a File Server and Has 2.7 Times Better Price/Performance. I have provided some graphs to show the figures. Mindcraft tested the file-server performance of Microsoft Windows NT Server 4.0 and Novell NetWare 5 on a Compaq ProLiant 1850R. Mindcraft tested file sharing using TCP/IP for both servers. Table 1 shows the peak throughput measured for each system in megabits per second (Mbits/S), the price of the software tested, and the price/performance in dollars per Mbits/S.

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