Research Paper on Singapore

Free Research Paper on Singapore:

In this paper I will present my research results regarding Singapore, as well as draw the picture of its marketing environment. I will include the information about the location, climate, population, religion and culture, official spoken languages, state of economy and level of technologies, political and legal systems, level of competition and potential for economic growth. In the conclusion I will highlight advantages and disadvantages of the Singapore marketing environment.

1. Introduction
Singapore is the nation of islands which is situated on the South of Malay Peninsula. Its area is only 704,0 square kilometers, and it is the smallest country in Southeast Asia. Its anthem is Majulah Singapura and motto is called the same and sounds like Onward, Singapore. The capital of Singapore is Singapore city and there are four spoken official languages: Malay, Mandarin, Tamil and English. It is Parliamentary republic and the President of Singapore is Sellapan Ramanathan, the Prime Minister- Lee Hsien Loong.

Singapore received the city status on July, 24 1951, became self-government under the rule of UK on June, 3 1959 and was declared independent on August, 31 1963. During the same year it merged with Malaysia, but in two years separated from it. The population of Singapore is about 4,680,600 people and the density of population is 6,369.2 per square kilometer. Total GDP in 2007 was estimated on the level of 161.35 billion of US dollars. Singapore’s currency is Singapore dollar.

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It is a multi-religious country. Singapore is a real attraction to tourists from all over the world, and tourism is one of the largest industries in the country. In 2007 it attracted more than 10 million tourists and government adopts definite laws to attract even more tourists (for instance, legalizing gambling) on the constant basis.

2. Singapore’s Marketing Environment
2.1 Location
Singapore contains 63 islands, as well as the mainland of Singapore itself. The largest islands in Singapore are Pulau Ubin, Jurong Island, Pulau Tekong and Sentosa, others are far smaller. The highest Singapore point is called Bukit Timah Hill and its height is 166 m. There are about 67.3 hectares of Botanic Gardens in Singapore.

According to Koppen system of climate classification, Singapore’s climate can be characterized as tropical rainforest and it has also no distinctive seasons. The climate is characterized by universal pressure and temperature, high level of humidity, as well as abundant rainfalls. The average levels of relative humidity vary from 90 percent in the morning to 60 percent in the afternoon. When there are abundant rains, the humidity level reaches 100 percent. The temperature range is from 22°C to 34°C. The level of temperature never fall below 18 °C and was never higher than 38 °C. The hottest months of the year are said to be June and July, and the wettest are November and December, called the monsoon season. The length of the light day is approximately constant during the year in Singapore.

2.2 Population
Speaking about the demographical situation in Singapore, it is necessary to mention that in accordance with the statistics of the government, the population of the country (in 2007) was about 4,68 million people, about 80 percent of the population constitute citizens of Singapore and permanent residents. From those residents, 75.2 percent are Chinese, 13.6 percent are Malays, 8.8 percent are Indians and only 2.4 percent are people of other groups and Eurasians.

2.3 Religion
Singapore is generally referred to as the multi-religious country. But still the majority of population (51%) practice Taoism and Buddhism. Chinese people, Indians and Europeans (15%) practice Christianity (including Protestantism, Catholicism, etc). There are also 14 percent of Muslims and minorities are involved with Baha’I Faith, Hinduism, Sikhism and some others. Some religions, for example, Jehovah Witnesses, are prohibited to distribute their materials. There are also people (about 15 percents) who declare that they do not have any religious affiliation.

2.4 Languages
As I have already mentioned, Singapore has four official languages: English, Tamil, Mandarin and Malay. It was so historically formed that the official language of Singapore is Malay and the national anthem is also written in Malay language. English is the administration language of Singapore and it is mainly British English, but also contain some American English influences. English remains the first language medium in schools and colleges of the country, and is also the most widespread language in the literature. All signs and official publications are written in English, but there are also versions translated into other official languages. But the population doesn’t speak English, but so-called Singlish with Creole characteristics, Chinese dialects, and Indian and Malay languages.

2.5 Culture
To describe the culture of the country in the full extent, it is necessary to investigate into its cuisine, media, performing arts, sports and recreation, as well as into its architectural heritage. Singapore cuisine is the bright example of cultural diffusion and diversity of the country, and Indian, Malay, Chinese and Tamil influences can be observed. Local people enjoy eating mee poh, bak chor mee, sambal stringray, nasi lemak, satay and chilli crab. All kind of food is usually served in hawker centers. Food of Singapore is very diverse and includes a lot of seafood with clams, squid, oysters and crabs.

Singapore for the last two decades is being promoted by the government as the center of culture and arts. Government wants to transform Singapore to the cosmopolitan gates between the West and the East. Esplanade, built in 2002, a center of performing arts, was a big step in that direction.

There is also National Arts Council, which organizes annual arts festival that includes theatre and visual arts, music and dance. Singapore Biennale is also held from 2006 to present the contemporary art from all around the world to the broad public. This year, Biennale will include Southeast Asian works of art.

Media of Singapore plays an outstanding role in the development of the country and is one of the key media center in the Asia-Pacific region. The government’s goal is to establish the reputation of Singapore and make it the global media hub. MediaCorp is the state-owned corporation that broadcasts 7 local channels and 14 radio channels. So, all television and radio (with the exception of 4 stations) are owned by the government. It is illegal to own private satellites with uncensored content from abroad. The Straits Times is the most popular newspaper in the country. In general, there are 16 newspapers, which are actively circulated. The print industry is also predominantly controlled by state-owned Singapore Press Holdings.

As to the Singapore’s architecture, I must say that tallest buildings in Singapore are situated at the Raffles Place and they are: OUB Centre, UOB Plaza One and Republic Plaza. They are all 280 meters high. There are also such ethnic neighborhoods in Singapore as Little India and Chinatown. There are a lot of temples and worship places that were built in the colonial times.

2.6 Economy and Technologies
Singapore’s economy can be described as developed market-based one. Singapore is called one of the Four Asian Tigers along with Taiwan, South Korea and Hong-Kong. The Singapore’s economy is export-oriented and mainly depends on export of refined import goods (for instance, manufacturing). Manufacturing takes about 25 percent of the country’s GDP and includes petroleum refining, electronics, mechanical engineering, biomedical science manufacturing and chemicals production. It is important also to know that Singapore has the busiest port in terms of shipped tonnage in the world and is the fourth biggest foreign exchange country after New York, London and Tokyo. It has also the rating of the most business-friendly economy of the world.

It is the least corrupted country in Asia, which is probably stipulated with the fact that state-owned companies are dominating in different sectors of the economy (utilities, public transport and media).

Speaking about the competition, it is important to mention that there is almost no competition in government-owned sectors of economy.

2.7 Political and Legal System
Singapore has the parliamentary democracy and the Westminster system of government that represents various constituencies. The executive power belongs to the Cabinet, the Head of which is the Prime Minister. The Presidential Office has some veto powers for some key decisions, including the appointment of judiciary positions and use of national reserves. The legislative branch of the power is presented with the Parliament.

Parliamentary elections of the country are based on plurality for group representation constituencies. The Members of Parliament contain elected, nominated or non-constituency members. They are usually elected at the General Election. The official residence of the President is called the Istana.

Political views are generally controlled by the People’s Action Party, and even though there are some other parties in Singapore (Singapore Democratic Party, Worker’s Party of Singapore, Singapore Democratic Alliance, etc.), Singapore is argued to be a one-party country. Singapore cannot also be called purely democratic state, but more to have procedural kind of democracy, as regime in the country has both elements- democratic and authoritarian.

Many laws of Singapore were taken from British and British Indian legislative systems, although the People’s Action Party rejected the adoption of liberal democratic values, as it considered being incompatible with Singapore. Important note is that there are no jury trials in the country and the freedom of speech is restricted by the law. There are also particular laws that allow capital punishment (for drugs distribution and murder of the first degree). Singapore is frequently criticized by international organizations for having the highest rates of executions in the world. But Singapore answers that it has the sovereign right to decide and determine juridical system and impose death penalties for serious crimes.

3. Conclusion
So, Singapore is an island nation with almost 4,7 millions of inhabitants and open and transparent market economy. It has four official languages spoken, which is obviously the advantage, as it provides larger business opportunities. Having the busiest port in the world is also a strong side of Singapore, along with one of the ten lowest levels of corruption in the world. It has favorable climate for the development of agricultural sector, and genuine landscapes, which are great attraction to tourists, as well as unique mixture of cultures and religions. The economy of the country is mainly based upon manufacturing, especially electronics.

Speaking about weak sides, I would like to highlight the absence of competition in many sectors of economy for the reason that they are totally controlled by government. Death penalty is also a great disadvantage, as the modern country nowadays should think and implement more contemporary legislative decisions to prevent and control serious crimes.

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