Free research paper about Kashmir:
Kashmir is the disputed area in the far north of the Indian subcontinent with an area of 222,236 km2. Kashmir is bordered by Afghanistan to the north and by Pakistan to the west, Tibet Autonomous Region of China and Xinjiang Uygur on the east and in the south by Indian states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab. China and Pakistan dispute the right of India to Kashmir and Pakistan at the beginning claimed to the possession of the entire area, and now actually included in its membership the north-western part of the Kashmir area of 78,932 square km2. Administratively it is mainly allocated to the so-called Azad (“free”) Kashmir. Under Chinese control is the north-eastern part of the territory of Kashmir, an area of 42,735 km2. The rest of the area of 100,569 km2 is occupied by the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.
In Kashmir, you can isolate a few natural areas, which differ primarily by topography and geological structure. In the extreme south-west stretches a narrow strip of Punjab plains with highly eroded lands, which to a large extent lost its fertility. To the north-east it is replaced by undulating ridges Sivalik up to 600-700 m above sea level and then the Lesser Himalaya (Pir Panjal mountain range with the Tatakuti Mount, 4743 m). Before the Lesser Himalayas the famous Kashmir valley is located. It presents a vast intermountain basin with a length of 135 km and a width of 40 km. The average height of the bottom of is 1600 m above sea level. It is the most densely populated part of Kashmir with its largest city of Srinagar on the shore of Jehlam river near the Dahl lake. Vular is the largest lakes of the region. In the north-east of the Kashmir valley hangs Great Himalayan Range with sharp rocky ridges, where several peaks exceeding 7,000 m (the highest point is Nunkun Mount, 7135 m). The vast plateau of Ladakh, also known as the Little Tibet, stretches further to the east.
The climate in Kashmir varies greatly even over short distances. The average annual rainfall in Srinagar is about 640 mm, in Jammu – more than 1000 mm, and in the city of Leh in Ladakh – only 80 mm. In the Kashmir Valley, 40-50% of the precipitation falls in the period from February to April. Agriculture in the northern areas of Kashmir is highly dependent on the snow-glacier rivers. In the south Kashmir climate is much warmer than in the northern region. The average January temperature in Srinagar is -1 ° C, in July +21 ° C.
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