Espionage means an activity when a government, a company, or an individual comes across or trying to come across information that is considered secret or confidential without the permission of whoever possesses it. Such an activity by definition occurs in secret, because it is generally considered unwelcome and, in many cases, is illegal and punishable. Espionage is spying. A similar activity in the time of war is treason.
It is not known exactly when the first espionage took place, but we know that since there have been secrets, there have been spies. Continue reading
Financial analysis of a firm is very important for its development and growth. Every entrepreneur has to evaluate the actual performance of his firm if he wants to keep the whole situation under control. When one knows about strong and weak sides of his company, he is able to change something in order to strengthen his company. It is possible to improve the quality of products, regulate prices, invent other goods and services, etc.
One should also study the current situation on the market, because it affects a firm’s success. An entrepreneur has to bear in mind that there are many risks on the market.
Only a real professional is able to control his business wisely and can react to every risks and change rapidly. Financial analysis is a good indicator of a company’s performance on the market. One should observe the actual revenue and cost of production in order to evaluate a company’s success and its potential objectively. This analysis is conducted several times per year for an entrepreneur’s advantage. Guillermo furniture store analysis is conducted to plan the company’s production. They calculate their revenue and expenditures in order to receive the actual sum of money that can be spent on further production and expansion of this business. They try to forecast their sales in order to know whether they have chances for expansion in future. They compare their previous results of this analysis and define whether there is any progress in their activity. Naturally, if Guillermo furniture store has increasing results in its financial analysis, there is a good chance for success. Continue reading
Deterioration of environmental situation has become particularly noticeable from the 60-ies of the 20th century. It was the time when the media began to widely spread the message about the consequences of the DDT and other pesticides use, a sharp increase of human waste not digestible in nature in the atmosphere and the hydrosphere, the lack of material and energy resources, etc.
Imbalance in nature is now a major problem of mankind. The consequences of the situation are too serious to be ignored and are able to lead to environmental disasters. The effects of anthropogenic pressures on the natural environment can be the same as the use of atomic weapons, the destruction of life on Earth. Continue reading
Psychometrics is a statistical discipline that deals with the techniques of measuring psychological phenomena such as knowledge, skills, attitudes, traits, and personal characteristics. The subjects of psychomotorics’ research are typically the differences between individuals or between groups of individuals. As an auxiliary science, psychometrics is used within the marketing, developmental psychology, and other social sciences.
The main psychometrics’ research area is formulating and refining the theoretical underpinnings of the measure itself, as well as developing and refining specific psychometric’ measuring instruments. Continue reading
To better understand the world and things, we are learning by comparing and categorizing. The categorization is therefore a basic automatic process well known to researchers. In human context, categorization tends to legitimize the categories giving them more than an existence, an essence.
We categorize people and objects based on the idea that they have the same nature. It is the process of categorization that presides over the stereotypes. However, categorization is a major process of the construction of social identity. What defines the stereotype, is its consensual dimension. Continue reading
The issue of non-human animals having consciousness has important philosophical implications, not least for their moral status. It is controversial and positions are diverse, from Descartes’s view that animals can be likened to dispassionate and unconscious machines to the theories that attribute to the animal rich cognitive abilities. The topic has gained renewed relevance since the latter part of the 20th century, when the so-called “cognitive revolution” took place. Experiments that have been performed suggest that some animals, such as chimpanzees, have a far more developed mentally life than previously thought, although they still differ greatly from humans.
A crucial distinction in question is the one between consciousness and self-consciousness, in which the latter less frequently attributed to animals, although some claim that, for example, some primates are self-aware. Continue reading
What is a personality feature? Gordon Allport defined it as “neurobehavioural structure able to convert many functionally equivalent stimuli, as well as to stimulate and guide the equivalent (largely stable) form of adaptive and expressive behavior. Simply put, a personality feature is a predisposition to behave in a similar manner in a wide range of situations. For example, if someone is shy, that person will tend to remain calm and restrained in many different situations such as sitting in a classroom, taking a meal in the cafe, doing his homework in a dorm, making shopping with friends. If a person is basically good, he or she will be rather talkative and sociable in those same situations. Allport’s theory argues that human behavior is relatively stable over time and in different situations. Continue reading
Pharmacotherapy is a treatment using drugs or other pharmacological agents. A similar notion of chemotherapy refers to the pharmacotherapy in oncology. Pharmacotherapy is a conservative (non-invasive) treatment.
Pharmacotherapy is also a subdivision of pharmacology, which studies the drug therapy. Continue reading
Crowdsourcing is a method to solve problems with, or seek proposals for solving problems from many other partners. It has largely become possible with Web 2.0.
The concept involves a wider range of ideas, faster solutions to complex problems and are often economically beneficial part of a project. Crowdsourcing is a project of open innovation, individual providers is its opposite and involves few people, such as parent-teacher meetings. Continue reading
Genetic screening is a screening of asymptomatic population to identify persons who have (arguably) a given genotype. We will take for our study the definition of the Dutch Health Council:, according to which genetic screening is an examination carried out on human beings for purposes of screening or early systematic exclusion of hereditary disease, predisposition to this disease or the porting of this predisposition that may induce a hereditary disease affecting the offspring, regardless of the type of examination whereby this is achieved. This definition includes therefore the three distinctive features of the genetic screening:
- it’s a hereditary illness (predisposition or carrier status);
- It is not a request of assistance on the part of the persons concerned;
- It is a systematic approach to the target group in the field of genetics.