Chinese Exclusion Act (1882-1943) is an act by the Congress of the United States, published May 6, 1882, in response to the massive immigration of Chinese to the West of the country. The first and only official act in the history of the United States, directed against members of particular nationality (other discriminatory laws adopted in the country concerned the races as a whole). The law banned all Chinese immigration and/or naturalization of Chinese migrants already living in the United States. Originally, the law was to extend to 10 years, but in its general terms, not taking into account the less significant Magnuson quota in 1943, it lasted until 1965.
Use free sample research paper on Chinese Exclusion Act to learn that the first Chinese immigrant appeared in the United States in the 1840’s, immediately after the capture of Mexico former Northern Territories, which began the California gold rush in 1848. While there has been plenty of gold, Chinese people living in Chinatown, were tolerated, but when its stocks ran low, the tolerance began to evaporate. The situation was helped by only a relatively small pool of both Chinese and white immigrants. Continue reading
In the 17th century, in England, there was a religious movement, whose supporters have sought to clear the Anglican Church from all sorts of accretions. These were the Puritans, who initiated the sexual culture, called the Puritan and having a broad sphere of influence. The victory under the leadership of Cromwell’s Puritans quickly increased their influence. They have opposed all pleasures, including sexual intercourse. The Puritans were reluctant to entertain themselves, as it distracted them from work, which became for them a cult. During holidays and Sundays were meant to attend the service. A desire to impose by force on society a rigorist legislation of morality led to the political demise of the Puritans. During the reign of Charles II, the Puritan traditions were criticized, and were only partially preserved in the guidance on labor.
Such an attitude to the Puritan morality continued until the end of the 18th century, when it gradually came to its original forms in the so-called Victorianism, which was a response to the easing of moral norms. In the Victorian period, a special role of the family, marriage was emphasized. The woman was considered as a housekeeper, an angel-like, asexual entity. Continue reading
Doctrine of the Church has its roots in the early literature of the Christian era. Apostolic Fathers and apologists usually represent the Church as the Holy Communion, the people of God, which he chose in possession. Although it is referred to as the Eternal House of God in the relationship of the Church with its historical background is not always well understood.
The biblical understanding of eternity was formed by the Church in the context of cosmology, mainly within the criticism of Origenism. The question was about choosing between the antique concept of eternal cosmos associated with cyclical understanding of time and the Biblical line vision of history, which was started thanks to the full expression of God’s will.
The antique picture of the universe is dualistic, it involves two co-eternal original: the intelligible cosmos (Platonic kosmos noetos), i.e., impersonal world of ideas; and the world of matter, which is lower, nevertheless equally eternal reality. Continue reading
Public finance is the sphere of financial relations which appeared with the distribution of GDP and the part of national wealth and is related with the use of the state financial resources for the organization of the appropriate life in the country – broadening of production, satisfaction of the cultural and social needs of the citizens, national defence and public administration. Public finance is a broad sphere which works on all levels of the country’s life – national, regional and local. Public finance includes such services and elements as budget, extrabudgetary funds, state credit, finance state and municipal enterprises. Public finance is probably the most important indicator of the country’s prosperity, because the government donates money into different spheres of the social life – transportation, hospitals, recreational areas, cultural events, development of infrastructure, construction of various buildings for public services, etc. Continue reading
Folk refers to the set of music associated with a national or regional traditional culture or geographical area. The three key concepts in the definition of folk music are therefore the geographical socio-cultural origins, transmission, and re-creation.
If you want to write a successful research paper on the topic you must know that Johann Gottfried Herder (1744-1803) was one of the first scientists described folk music from a theoretical point of view. He, like other early explorers, emphasized the direct link between folk music and nature. In the 19th century, folk music was considered, if not “the music of nature, at least, natural, a natural music not prone to urban influences. The researchers then examined the following questions: is there a link between the classical and folk music, as well as whether the detected traces of the origin and forms of folk music in the language or movement. Continue reading
A variety of DNA damage can occur spontaneously or under the influence of external factors. Cells need a highly effective mechanism of reparation, since the integrity of the DNA is essential for cell survival and normal functioning, and the damage is occurring constantly. DNA contains about 3*109 basic pairs (in humans) and 2*1011 Covalent bonds, is a huge target for various damaging factors.
Use free sample research papers on DNA damage to learn that on the basis of known energy ties, you can calculate the typical DNA cells each day undergoing spontaneous about 10000 cases of depurinization (the loss of F or G base), 500 cases of depyrimidinization (the loss C or T base) and 160 cases of Cytidine deamination (C to T transformation). The main type of exogenous DNA damage is dimerization of pyrimidine bases. This occurs under the influence of UV light in the epidermis and leads to the formation of thymidine dimers (combined with cyclobutane ring) or thymidine-cytidine dimers. Continue reading
In China, there were three great teachings: Confucianism, Taoism and Chinese Buddhism.
The renaissance of Chinese philosophy began with the Book of Changes. The universe is threefold: sky + man + earth. The man is understood to be the emperor. The Earth is a square in the center of which is China. CI is the energy of the universe, holding two beginning: Yin and Yang. Confucius commented the Book of Changes in his treatise “the ten wings.” With his focus is in the past, the attention is given to the practical problems the State government, the description of noble men, who should be a philanthropist and know the rules of conduct. The knowledge maps to the knowledge of the ancient texts, where loyalty valued, and everyone knew his place. Confucius paid great attention to issues of ethics and policy. The main categories of Confucianism are the notions of a noble man, philanthropy, and the rules of the ritual. Continue reading
Biomass is the general quantity of living substance of the selected ecosystem. The quantity of biomass is measured according to the weight of the live material of the live organisms. The absolute value of the planet’s biomass can be measured in a very approximate way, because it is quite difficult to follow the breeding of animals in different parts of the world calculating their definite number. Moreover, the reproduction of the certain animals is extremely rapid and one will not guess the actual number of the representatives of this definite specie of the definite area. Furthermore, the majority of the depths of Earth’s oceans have not been discovered yet, so it is impossible to state that there is no life there. The approximate calculations of the planet’s biomass are equal to the 16 billion tons of World Ocean and 6 trillion tons on the organisms of the surface. Continue reading
Some believe that the philosophy of animal rights is part of the human rights movement, and is not separate from them. That means that the same philosophy that represents and defends human rights also defends non-human animal rights.
Advocates are mostly agree that animals should not be seen as property, or used as garments, laboratory animals or for entertainment, or even food.
Proponents see the issue from different perspectives. Abolitionists (those who oppose animal husbandry) ague that animals have moral rights, and encourage people to feel uncomfortable with exploiting animals.
Professor Gary l. Francione promotes ethical veganism. He says that the groups for animal rights that receive subsidies, such as People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PeTa), are trying to make people feel uncomfortable with making use of animals. He calls such groups as “new welfarists” (new welfare policies supporters). Animal rights philosopher Tom Regan suggests that at least some animals, but probably most of them, are “subject-of-a-life,” with their beliefs, desires, memories, and a sense of their own future. Continue reading
At the time of its inception, Islam has been a syncretic religion, having absorbed some elements of religions of the Arabian Peninsula. The main influence on the original Islam had a pre-Islamic ancient beliefs and cults: Hanif, Judaism, Christianity, and Mazdeism.
The founder of Islam is Prophet Muhammad, historically accurate person.
In 610, Mohammed spoke publicly as a Prophet in Mecca. This year is the year of the rise of Islam. Although neither the first, nor the subsequent sermon of Muhammad in Mecca did not bring him success, he was able to recruit some of the followers of the new religion.
The sermons of that period were mostly not about real life and concerned the soul, and therefore cannot cause a great interest among the population. The local powers were hostile as to the sermon as to Mohammed. Continue reading