In China, there were three great teachings: Confucianism, Taoism and Chinese Buddhism.
The renaissance of Chinese philosophy began with the Book of Changes. The universe is threefold: sky + man + earth. The man is understood to be the emperor. The Earth is a square in the center of which is China. CI is the energy of the universe, holding two beginning: Yin and Yang. Confucius commented the Book of Changes in his treatise “the ten wings.” With his focus is in the past, the attention is given to the practical problems the State government, the description of noble men, who should be a philanthropist and know the rules of conduct. The knowledge maps to the knowledge of the ancient texts, where loyalty valued, and everyone knew his place. Confucius paid great attention to issues of ethics and policy. The main categories of Confucianism are the notions of a noble man, philanthropy, and the rules of the ritual.
According to Confucius, the noble men, led by the emperor – son of heaven himself – are to govern the State. A noble man is a paragon of moral perfection, the man who by all his behavior argues morality. It is by these criteria Confucius suggested to select for public service. The main task of the noble man is to nurture philanthropy in himself and propagate it throughout humanity. Philanthropy has included the parents care, filial love, and respect to elders in the family, as well as equitable relations among those not bound by kinship.
Extended to policy, these principles were to serve as the foundation of the entire management system. Education of citizens was the most important public business, and should be implemented by the force of personal example: “To govern means doing the right thing.” In turn, the people must show childlike deference to the rulers and obey them unquestioningly.
Taoism with The Book of the Way, founded by Lao Tzu. Main category here is the Tao (the way). The Tao is the universal law, which is the driving force of all. The philosophical principle of uwa (non-action), the principle of Tao De –a method of philosophizing. The doctrine of immortality, the cult of immortality. Foundations of the philosophy of Taoism, Lao-Tzu describes in his treatise the Tao Te Ching (IV-III centuries BC). In the heart of the doctrine is the doctrine of the great Dao, Universal Law, and Absolute. Tao has various meaning, it is an endless movement. Tao is a kind of law of existence, the cosmos, and a universal unity of the world. Tao is everywhere and in everything, always and infinitely.
Never created, it is the beginning and the end. Invisible and inaccessible to human senses, continuous and inexhaustible, unnamed and formless, it gives rise, name, and form to everything in the world. Even the great Sky should be the Tao.
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