In my paper, I’ll give necessary instructions how to prepare the lesson. I’ll concentrate on the appropriate procedures for teaching students how to compare and contrast. The main aim of the lesson is the understanding of the material by the students and the further operation with it. There are several teacher techniques that teachers usually use to achieve the appropriate results. In my work, I’ll represent them. The lesson must be begun from the introduction or the prodrome. The teacher introduces the subject of the lesson: the concept of comparing and contrasting on the example of fairy-tale “Prince Derek and the Ring.”
Discussion of the Fairy-tale
First of all, it’s necessary to discuss with the students the fairy-tale. From the first point of view this fairy-tale is a usual interesting story for pleasure, but analyzing it deeper the students will notice that it’s dedicated to fundamental questions of good and evil. The main idea of the fairy-tale is how you treat people, so people will treat you. The main character, Prince Derek becomes the king after his father’s death. His father wants his son to be a good person and asks his guardian Fairy to help him: “You know very well that only a good man can be content.
Madam, if you promised me to become his friend, then I know he would grow to be the best of princes.” Fairy, another main character agrees and presents Prince Derek a magic ring to remain him about his bad deeds. Prince Derek is young, self-confident and got the absolute power in the country. He treats people cruelly and is strictly punished by Fairy. Only Prince’s sincere repentance and some good deeds, which he makes with all his heart, give him a possibility to be happy. The teacher must check that all the students have read the tale and can discuss it freely and analyze it.
Contrast and Comparison
The second step is to make the students acquainted with concepts of contrasting and comparing. For example, the teacher can bring two pictures of different seasons: the picture of autumn and the picture of spring. At first, the students will have to find the differences. Then the teacher explains that this kind of work is called contrasting: you show the differences of the things when you contrast them. The next step is to find the similarities of these two seasons. This kind of work is known as comparing: you show the similarities of the things when compare them. To compare and contrast the things, you must find how they are alike and how they are different. Now the students are acquainted with the main concepts, and they can easily discuss the fairy-tale from this point of view. The information must be well organized to achieve the appropriate understanding of the test. The teacher may briefly compare and contrast the main characters of the well-known book for students. It will help them to understand the concepts better and simplify the further work.
Kinds of Practice
Now it’s the right to time to turn from the discussions of pictures to the discussion of the fairy-tale. The teacher can write on the main blackboard questions that can help students to compare and contrast the main characters. For example, What is being compared? What is it about the main characters that I want to compare? How are they alike? (comparison) How are they different? (contrast) And others. The students must follow this model and answer the questions one after another. At first, the teacher must conduct discussion and set it on the right track. For example, the teacher must raise suitable questions that reflect the subject of the discussion, remain differences between two concepts if the student hasn’t seen these differences yet, etc. The teacher must see to it that all the students take part in the discussion and are active. The teacher orients the discussion. The teacher asks the students who are shy or don’t want to answer. This type of teacher’s techniques is called “Guided Practice” because the teacher is an active participant in the discussion. Now the students understand the principles of comparing and contrasting and can analyze the main characters without teacher’s help. This type of work is called “Independent Practice” because the teacher doesn’t take part in the discussion, he is just a passive observer. The students set a few main questions and try to answer them. During the collective discussion, all the opinions must be taken into account and in the end must be concluded.
During the practice, the teacher assesses students’ understanding of the concept of comparing and contrasting and so gives appropriate notes. The end of the lesson may be the following: the teacher divides all the students into two groups. The first group of students writes all the similarities that the students have found in the fairy-tale and the second group of students writes all the differences the students have found. With the help of such form of testing the teacher can assess all of the students on the skill of compare and contrast. As a conclusion, the teacher asks several students the definition of two concepts and asks to explain the distinctions between two concepts using own examples.
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