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Hydrological Problems Term Paper

The discharge refers to the navigable waters and is characterized by the presence of any natural or artificial pollutants in the water patterns, Utah State University informs. The discharge, also known as water contamination, is a global problem, the relevance of which depends on the level of industrial and agricultural development in each country and region but is not limited to it.

Navigable waters usually serve as the part of infrastructure both in the rural and urban areas. Therefore, one of the most obvious reasons for the contamination and discharge is the anthropologic activity. Navigable waters are seldom the source of fresh drinkable water, and this is explained by the primary purposes of use: navigation, goods transportation, irrigation, sewerage are among its numerous functions.

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The law suggests taking measures to prevent the contaminated water from mixing with the fresh one and being safely utilized by its operator (Utah State University). In real life, however, it is not always possible to follow similar directions and regulations. The pollution of irrigation systems by such manure water appears to be a widespread case.

The growth of non-farming activities in the rural areas, industrial impact and damage of drainage tiles are among the main reasons for the discharge in the rural-urban fringe. In urban areas, the discharge is usually the result of household activities and residential waste, because the inhabitants there usually pay less attention to the problems associated with water quality (University of Illinois Extension). As these factors influence the rural zones, farmers start looking for the ways of water protection. In agriculture, the successful growth of most plants depends on water supplies and fertilizers throughout the growth cycle. When the misbalance takes place, the probability of obtaining good harvest decreases.

Besides, not only the industrial development in the rural-urban fringe influences the quality of water and soil. The soil fertilizers are sometimes considered to be the reason for the discharge or erosion (Howard and Israfilov 8), while the increased water movement spreads the contamination (University of Illinois Extension).

Natural disasters and unfavourable nature conditions can also be the reason for the discharge. Flooding and leaking make the water mix with different sorts of natural and artificial substances both in urban and rural zones and cause the discharge, which can extend on a large scale.

In urban areas, the necessity of water protection has been recognized and the measures for handling hydrological problems designed. The most significant solutions include the management of groundwater and other resources as well as urban planning. Various artificial techniques are supposed to help in restoring the groundwater flow regime and increasing its quality. Further methods include off-site sanitation in the urban areas and the water recharge that is supposed to bring fresh water from the remote areas that are not subjected to industrial and residential waste (Howard and Israfilov 4-6). The aforementioned techniques should avoid the widespread problems of urban run-off, flooding, leaking and protect the groundwater, which is considered to be the main source of drinkable water.

References
Howard, Ken W.F., and Rauf G. Israfilov. Current Problems of
Hydrogeology in Urban Areas, Urban Agglomerates and Industrial Centres. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. Print.
University of Illinois Extension. Drainage Issues on the
Rural-Urban Fringe, 2011. Web. 26 Sept. 2011.
Utah State University Cooperative Extension. Utah Water
Quality, 2011. Web. 26 Sept. 2011.

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