Xiphoid foramen is a significant variation in the xiphoid process. It can take different natures, with the most notable one being sterna element with a variety of forms. Conventional knowledge indicates that the various structures of this defect can be curved, deflected, broad, thin, or trifid. Moreover, anatomical variant, which entails imperfection in appearance and anatomical location, is the other considered fault. Having significant knowledge regarding this type of openings is crucial due to the medical report related to bone marrow sampling and pathology autopsy. The existence of xiphoid foramen has been based on the documented statistics as well as other notable variations in the xiphoid process. Hence, one can determine the prevailing existing of the condition for medical purposes.
There are different characteristics of xiphoid foramen informed by reported evidence. The components to consider include facts related to population frequency, functional consequences, and possible causes. In the article, “An Anatomic Abnormality: Double Sternal Foramina”, Balta (2018) presents the case report of an 84 year old woman with two sterna foramina. The study found out that the presence of sterna foramen is due to developmental defect attributed to incomplete fusion within the sterna bar. Significantly, the author identified that the frequency of the condition is reported at 4.5% of the population (Balta, 2018). Additionally, Rao, T. and Rao S. (2017) state that the conducted present autopsy findings indicates that 6.7% of the population has sternum bony defects. Regarding the mostly affected persons, persons aged 8-years and those of old age are observed to have sterna foramen (Rao, T. & Rao S., 2017). Thus, there is a significant variation in the incidences of xiphoid foramen.
Anatomical variations have crucial functional consequences. Nyemb, Fontaine, and Jean-Marc (2017) provide an examination done on 5-year old and his father. The findings were that the latter had “partial and unilateral hypoplasia of the trapezius muscle, but without functional consequences”. However, the authors concluded that the individual could have developed some difficulties in moving his shoulder and, particularly, “during flexion, abduction, and circumduction of the arm”. It means that despite the reported cases of this defect, the openings might have significant effect on grownups than young children. In another work, “Evaluation of the Anatomical and Functional Consequences of Repetitive Mild Cervical Contusion Using a Model of Spinal Concussion”, Jin, Bouyer, Haas, and Fischer (2015) explore the case of functional effects of repeated injury. The study found out that repetitive injury may result in functional deficits. Therefore, the changes in increase tissue damage and distortion of cells are considerable anatomical variations.
The possible causes of xiphoid foramen are due to different anomalies in xiphoid process. Mashriqi, D’Antoni and Tubbs (2017) assert that the expected interindividual variation is attributed to openings found in close proximity to thoratic and abdominal structures. Balta (2018) adds that the malformations are incidences of failure in embrogenic process, for example, fissures, which result in sterna anomalies. Furthermore, Rao, T. and Rao S. (2017) argue that the incomplete nature of the foramen and fissures can lead to a deficiency in xiphoid process, and this usually happens when a child lacks to attain the expected ossification. Thus, the developmental abnormalities in the sternum results in a variety of malformations.
Other Anatomical Variations
It is crucial to have a clear understanding of other anatomical variations. These unique natures of sternal happenings are based on different angles. Moreover, the great concern is that the variations cause great vulnerability to sternal puncture. For example, according to Duraikannu, Noronha, and Sundarrajan (2016), the flat sternum shape means that there is an irregular anterior surface. Hence, it implies that the xiphoid process is distorted due to the evident variations in the openings.
Different forms of Xiphoid foramen indicate that this defect is significant anatomical that affects the xiphoid process. There are evident differences in the nature of these types of openings as well as the population affected. However, the extent of the resulting deficiencies causes functional consequences because of the possible causes. The uniqueness of the sternal angles have clinical significant. Therefore, knowledge about Xiphoid foramen is crucial hence medical practitioners need to determine the nature of each of the anatomical variations to institute the required attention.
Balta, C. (2018). An Anatomic Abnormality: Double Sternal Foramina. International Journal of Clinical & Medical Images, 5(3). DOI: 10.4172/2376-0249.1000605.
Duraikannu, C., Noronha, O. V., & Sundarrajan, P. (2016). MDCT evaluation of sternal variations: Pictorial essay. The Indian Journal of Radiology & Imaging, 26(2), 185-194. Doi: 10.4103/0971-3026.184407
Jin, Y., Bouyer, J., Haas, C., & Fischer, I. (2015). Evaluation of the anatomical and functional consequences of repetitive mild cervical contusion using a model of spinal concussion. Experimental neurology, 271, 175-188. Doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2015.06.001
Mashriqi, F., D’Antoni, A. V., & Tubbs, R. S. (2017). Xiphoid Process Variations: A Review with an Extremely Unusual Case Report. Cureus, 9(8). DOI: 10.7759/cureus.1613
Nyemb, P. M. M., Fontaine, C., & Jean-Marc, N. (2017). Review of the literature on anatomical variations of the trapezius muscle. MOJ Anatomy & Physiology, 4(5), 00152. DOI: 10.15406/mojap.2017.04.00152
Rao, T.R. & Rao, S. (2017). Presence of unusual foramen in the sternum – A case report. Archives of Current Research International, 10(1), 1-4. DOI: 10.9734/ACRI/2017/36511
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