Anthropometry Example Essay

Anthropometry is the science that deals with the measurement of physical properties in the human body. These dimensional descriptions are usually used to determine the size and shape of the body. In this regard, various methods are used to measure the composition of the body. According to Madden and Smith (2014), the conventional methods that are often used to assess the shape, size, and composition of the human body include the Body Mass Index (BMI), the waist to hip ratio, bioelectrical impedance and the skin-fold test.

The Usefulness of BMI
The Body Mass Index is the most preferred method used in Anthropometry since it is easy to gather the information about a person’s weight and height with minimal error making it an efficient method. The BMI measure can also be utilised to estimate health risks associated with variations in BMI measurements.

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However, the errors reported on self-assessed BMI measures need to be adjusted by various factors otherwise the validity of uses becomes constrained unless corrected for the biases that are associated with the socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents (Stommel & Schoenborn, 2009). In addition, Seidell et al. (1989) stated that BMI is an excellent indicator of general fatness, muscularity, and frame size.

The Usefulness of Waist Circumference
Vazquez & Karri (2007) have explained the usefulness of waist circumference in defining obesity and have described it as a better anthropometric measurement of central obesity and a better predictor of abdominal visceral fat as compared to the waist/hip ratio (Genovesi, 2008). Furthermore, the weight circumference is easily measured and interpreted but cannot distinguish the total body fat strongly correlated with body mass index (Vazquez & Karri, 2007).

The Relationship between Obesity and Diabetes
Since obesity has become a significant epidemic affecting millions of people, it has also been found to be a risk factor in various kinds of diabetes including diabetes mellitus and type 2 diabetes (Abid, 2000). In addition, obesity also triggers changes in the metabolism of the body which cause the fat tissue to release fat molecules into the blood that affect insulin-responsive cells reducing insulin sensitivity (Sears, B., & Perry, M. (2015).

The Economic Cost of Obesity
The population figures for the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reveal that most people are overweight and as a result, obesity is responsible for a variety of costs. These costs are associated with the healthcare systems as well as the society and relate to the costs of dealing with obesity-related diseases and complications. Furthermore, other issues are also involved in this costs such as liver and mental diseases which are also caused and affected by obesity.

The Importance of Weight Reduction in Reversing the Severity of Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disorder that affects the metabolism of carbohydrate, fat, and proteins (Abid, 2000). While it has been proven that specific factors increase the risk of acquiring the disorder, being overweight is the primary risk factor and weight reduction for this type of diabetes means that the lesser fatty tissue, the better the cells metabolise insulin.

The experiment involved the examination of 90 participants involved in the study of which 51 were female and 39 male. The Dataset was obtained by doctors, dietitians and diabetes nurse specialists whom all worked in General Practice. They were asked to identify patients in their practice who had a diagnosis of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes and a control group who were matched for age. Anthropometric variables were to be measured using a tape measure and skinfold calipers, which were supplied and other equipment, which was available in the surgery (i.e. stadiometer and weighing scales). A brief questionnaire was answered by all patients. The data was entered into a blank Excel spreadsheet, which was sent to the Principal Investigator who checked this for consistency before amalgamating the data into one large spreadsheet.

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Works Cited
Abid, A., Jamoussi, H., Kammoun, H., Blouza, S. and Nagati, K., 2000. The relationship between obesity and diabetes. Cahiers du Medecin, 3(30), pp.22-4.
Genovesi, S., Antolini, L., Giussani, M., Pieruzzi, F., Galbiati, S., Valsecchi, M.G., Brambilla, P. and Stella, A., 2008. Usefulness of waist circumference for the identification of childhood hypertension. Journal of hypertension, 26(8), pp.1563-1570.
Powell, A. (2012). Obesity? Diabetes? We’ve been set up. Retrieved from
Sears, B., & Perry, M. (2015). The role of fatty acids in insulin resistance. Retrieved from
Seidell, J.C., Björntorp, P., Sjöström, L., Sannerstedt, R., Krotkiewski, M. and Kvist, H., 1989. Regional distribution of muscle and fat mass in men–new insight into the risk of abdominal obesity using computed tomography. International journal of obesity, 13(3), pp.289-303.
Stommel, M., & Schoenborn, C. A. (2009). Accuracy and usefulness of BMI measures based on self-reported weight and height: findings from the NHANES & NHIS 2001-2006. Retrieved from
Tremmel, M., Gerdtham, U.-G., Nilsson, P. M., & Saha, S. (2017). Economic Burden of Obesity: A Systematic Literature Review. Retrieved from
Vazquez, G., Duval, J., & Karri, D. R. (2007). Comparison of Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, and Waist/Hip Ratio in Predicting Incident Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis | Epidemiologic Reviews | Oxford Academic. Retrieved from