Free Essay on Critical Reasoning:
Analyzing text critically is rather complex procedure. Involving multiple criteria to consider, the process of critical reasoning should start from the general aspects of the given idea. Let us evaluate the particular passage critically. In the given text the author discusses the opportunities of new-coming era of speedily developing biotechnologies, emphasizing the advantage of one perspective over another.
The objective of the current text is to convince the reader that ecological and health preventive application of modern biotechnologies is more reasonable than transgenic engineering. The intended audience of the passage includes a wide range of readers, focusing on mass audience. The problem that author draws lies in a possibility of wrong choice between various perspectives of using new technologies in biology. In the current writing data and evidence used consist from general knowledge, moral principles of medicine, basic scientific facts, and the author’s personal opinion and observation on the subject. The concept used in the passage organizes the presented data in a form of informal conversation with reader, showing the different options of biology application. The writer’s assumption on the problem relies upon the principle of minimizing harm to living creatures. Finally, the conclusion of the text presents an implied message about the advantage of ecological practices over transgenic engineering.
The author’s purpose is rather explicit, presenting no hidden goals. The thesis statement may be interpreted as following: “Among the potential fields of application of developing biotechnologies, the better areas to focus on are ecology and preventive health, in contrast to transgenic engineering, which may appear more harmful and radical to nature.” The analysis of the entire text helped me to built the scheme of major argument of the author. The framework of argument is a standard information – premise – conclusion, presented as follows:
A: The next century will be the era of biotechnologies, focusing major applications on transgenic engineering and ecological or preventive health practices.
B: The first moral principle of biology is Do no harm.
C: Transgenic engineering is a radical and risky practice.
Thus, transgenic engineering does not correspond to moral principle. Hence, people should apply biotechnologies of next century to ecological and preventive medical sciences.
The argument presented has the following basis: There exist A and B. It is known that being C is bad. A is considered C. Thus, B is better than A. This type of argument is inductive, presenting a conclusion based on observations. This construction looks like a logical fallacy known as non sequitur. In this form conclusions do not directly follow from premises. There are no valid evidences that A is C. Moreover, nothing is said about B.
The writer does not directly present arguments on the subject. He rather gives plain information to the reader, offering us to choose from the two options ourselves. The form of conveying the major thesis is pseudo-hidden, as the writer poses questions in almost every passage. However, the information he presents to readers to be analyzed is biased, although not factually distorted. Applying an effective emotional appeal, the author offers us to choose the most helpful and less radical option between transgenic mutants or advanced agriculture. The expressions used lead us to the obvious choice. The final words of the passage emphasize the implied role of reader’s independent conclusion, saying, “What is better? The answer is obvious.” Indeed, after all the biased evidences, applied in the text the reader’s choice is obvious.
The argument in the given text is based on invalid evidence, though it does not make its thesis untrue. The text presents a demonstrative example for mastering critical reasoning.
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