At the time of its inception, Islam has been a syncretic religion, having absorbed some elements of religions of the Arabian Peninsula. The main influence on the original Islam had a pre-Islamic ancient beliefs and cults: Hanif, Judaism, Christianity, and Mazdeism.
The founder of Islam is Prophet Muhammad, historically accurate person.
In 610, Mohammed spoke publicly as a Prophet in Mecca. This year is the year of the rise of Islam. Although neither the first, nor the subsequent sermon of Muhammad in Mecca did not bring him success, he was able to recruit some of the followers of the new religion.
The sermons of that period were mostly not about real life and concerned the soul, and therefore cannot cause a great interest among the population. The local powers were hostile as to the sermon as to Mohammed.
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After the death of his wealthy wife in 622, Muhammad had to move to Medina, as his staying in Mecca was risky. The choice of a new base was fortunate, because Medina was a Mecca rival in many respects, particularly in trade. Often fighting has been taking place between the populations of these regions. The real interests of the people have defined ideological atmosphere in which preaching a new religion found support. The sermons of that period (the Medina Suras) are confident and categorical.
Living in Medina auses and khazraj, turning to Islam, have become a core group of Muhammad followers.
By the end of his life of Muhammad formed an Islamic theocratic State covering the entire Arabian Peninsula.
After the death of Muhammad in 632, Islam was strongly influenced by Christianity and Judaism.
Shortly after the death of Mohammed in Islam there emerged a Shiites political party, who recognized Muhammad’s son-in-law Ali as the legitimate successor and rejected the Umayyad dynasty. Gradually Shiite transformed into a separate religious orientation away from the main currents of Islam.
Supporters of Orthodox Islam became known as Sunnis.
Together with the appearance of Shiites all Arabia was embroiled in insurgency and separatist activity.
The most powerful of these movements was the Yemen movement, under the leadership of Muslim Maslam.
During the cruel and bloody wars that were led by the “sword of Islam” Khalid Ibn Al-Walid, all hotbeds of rebellion were destroyed, after which Muslim supporters and himself was eliminated. The anti-Islamic movement in Yemen was also eliminated.
In 30s of the 7th century, Caliphate defeated its main enemies: Byzantium and Iran. In 639, it began a campaign in Egypt, which ended with the complete conquest of the latter.
After the murder of Muhammad’s cousin and son-in-law Ali, the Caliphate throne was taken by the Umayyad dynasty took the Caliphate. In the first year of its reign, the capital of the Caliphate was moved to Damascus and Mecca and Medina ceased to be the political centers of the State.
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