Free essay on the Bay of Pigs Invasion:
The Bay of Pigs invasion was an attempt of military invasion of Cuba by Cuban exiles, supported by the United States in April 1961. Planned under the administration of Dwight Eisenhower, the operation was launched at the beginning of the term of John F. Kennedy.
It was intended to land in Cuba, April 17, 1961, with about 1400 Cuban exiles recruited and trained in the United States by the CIA to overthrow the new Cuban government established by Fidel Castro, who led an unfavorable economic policy to U.S. interests and approached the USSR. The operation was a complete failure.
After coming to power in 1959, Castro’s associates adopted a policy of agrarian revolution, which generated a large number of expropriation of the land, that is to say that the Cuban government took all the land owned by foreigner owners and whose profits do not go to the government of the island.
Thus, land was nationalized (become the property of the Cuban state), foreign owners had to return to their countries and land workers now work for the government and thus participate directly in favor of Cuba. Nationalization also removed the large Cuban landowners and their large estates minifundios, and deprived them their land workers and the wealth they derived from their land.
Castro also established links with the USSR, which was then in the position of the Cold War with the United States, prompting the latter to the blockade of the island in 1960 and terminate all Cuba-USA trade, including significant exports of cane sugar that Cuba sent to the North American buyer.
In January 1961, the U.S. government Dwight Eisenhower broke off diplomatic relations with Cuba.
April 15, 1961, the U.S. planes bombed airports and airfields in the country, destroying much of the aircraft on the ground (civilian and military). The initial objective of the CIA is to land a force of 1400 Cuban opponents recruited and trained to capture a hill near the Bay of Pigs.
On April 16, at the funeral of seven victims of the bombing, Fidel Castro, after comparing the landing at the attack on Pearl Harbor, launched: “What the imperialists cannot forgive us, it is making triumph of a socialist revolution right under the nose of the United States.”
The next day, April 17, the 2506 brigade landed at two locations in Playa Girón and Playa Larga, that is to say at the bottom and at the eastern entrance of the Bay of Pigs, 202 miles southeast of Havana, from many cargo ships, while other U.S. warships were intended to consolidate the bridgehead. Cuban exiles, who landed in an agricultural region whose inhabitants have benefited from the land reforms implemented by the Castro government, does not receive the expected support from the people. The intervention of the militia and troops of Fidel Castro, supported by ten Cuban military aircraft still in state, put to rout the invaders and the anti-Castro fighters to surround the Cuban army on April 19.
The operation led the Cuban government to ally openly with the USSR (Operation Anadyr) and was an international humiliation for the United States. It is also the direct cause of the Cuban missile crisis the following year. On settlement of the crisis, the United States pledged not to attack Cuba militarily.
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