is called the water that forms the underground part of the water cycle in nature.
It is formed by surface water very slowly seeping down through the soil (infiltration) and falls down (percolation). When the water reaches an impermeable surface (aquifuge), such as a crack-proof rock face of any crystalline rock, so water is stored and fills the voids found in the loose soil layers above. Groundwater table position is of great importance when to dig wells, build tunnels and bedrock, in agriculture and in the general community planning. For the drinking water supply for cities and other communities groundwater is used wherever and whenever possible. In Europe groundwater is primarily in eskers.
Groundwater may be a few weeks or several thousand years old, depending on aquifers structure and thickness.
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When talking about groundwater it is usually divided by the earth zones as follows: the root zone (from the surface down to the depth where the plants roots end), sinking water zone, capillary fringe (extending from the groundwater table up to the water’s highest capillary rise in the surrounding material).
The groundwater table water is obviously not as clear as the free surface water for example a lake but we rather talk about an unsaturated and saturated groundwater zone. In addition, it should be added that the groundwater table is very rarely a horizontal surface.
Capillary fringe is in minimal coarse gravel, sometimes only a few centimeters, whereas in, for example, silt capillary fringe it can be several feet high. In capillary fringe, there is generally a negative pressure compared with atmospheric pressure.
Strictly speaking, the groundwater is in the ground that has a positive pressure potential.
Once groundwater is put under tension and a negative pressure potential, it turns into soil water. The groundwater table has by definition null pressure potential and forms the boundary between soil water and groundwater.
To monitor the groundwater level in an area you use one or more observation wells. With the data from the observation wells, a map of the groundwater levels can be drawn up.
In 1888, the German bacteriologist Carl Fraenkel demonstrated that groundwater is free of bacteria, even when the surface is only a few feet below the earth’s surface. The explanation is that the rain penetrates into the earth so incredibly slowly that all the impurities are filtered out in the upper soil layers. Groundwater flow is very slow and is only a few yards a day.
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