Anesthesia research paper:
The word “anesthesia” comes from the Greek ????????: ability to perceive through the senses, combined with alpha (?) privative and nu (?) euphonious.
Anesthesia may affect one member, a part, or the whole body (general anesthesia).
Anesthesia is the suppression of feelings (especially the pain). It aims to make possible a medical procedure that otherwise would be too painful. The local anesthesia is performed in cases of chronic pain.
The phenomenon of anesthesia may occur due to lesions of sensitive nerve pathways at any level: from perceiving peripheral centers to the brain. If the conductivity is not lost, but is reduced, there is decrease in sensitivity, i.e., hypoesthesia.
The field of medicine that studies and practical anesthesia is called anesthesiology. This medical discipline is recent, and has revolutionized medicine by allowing quality surgery. The use of modern anesthetic techniques is one of the pillars of the rapid recovery after surgery reducing complications and allowing the patient to recover its resources and autonomy faster.
The history of the discipline dates back to October 16, 1846, when a young American dentist William Thomas Morton demonstrated a surgical removal of a tumor in the submandibular area under the ether anesthesia. This date is considered the date of birth of Anesthesiology. Although already in ancient Egypt, the doctors tried to use various tincture of opium, belladonna, mandrake, and others. Nevertheless, almost all surgery ended in failure due to pain shock.
In the current state of research, the mechanisms of anesthesiology are still unclear. Greenfield model puts in the continuum of “chemical landscapes” more or less large states of consciousness, after which lie, at the frontiers of consciousness, when the extent of neuronal assemblies is restricted, the hyperexcitability of the ecstasy consumers and schizophrenic delusions, which are, in fact, observed just before anesthesia.
In the early nineteenth century, the botanist Charles Ernest Overton and pharmacologist Hans Horst Meyer found that the power of anesthetic correlated with their solubility in olive oil. The law of Meyer- Overton helped formulate hypotheses invoking the unifying capacity of anesthetics to affect neuronal membranes, an overall process, which could have explained that molecules of various structures affect, depending on their affinity for fat, the same parameter. However, experimental data has refuted these hypotheses by showing that the elevation of body temperature, despite comparable effects on membranes, causing the opposite effect of what the theory predicted. The Meyer-Overton correlation was set aside between 1990 and 2010.
In modern anesthesia, a wide variety of medical equipment is used according to the needs and circumstances, for use in the field of surgery in the operating room or for intensive care in ICU. Anesthetists must have a thorough knowledge about the use of various medical gases, anesthetic agents, and apparatus for artificial ventilation. They must also master the security features, risks, and limitations of each device.
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