The purpose of this lab was to identify how Enterobacter Aerogenes affect different organisms. There have been increased cases of important opportunistic and multiresistant bacterial infections caused by these pathogens over the past few decades. Research findings have shown that most of the hospital-acquired outbreaks throughout Europe are due to these gram-negative bacteria. Studies show that E. aerogenes are able to acquire numerous genetic mobile elements that in turn affect their treatment plan.
They make them become resistant to antibiotics and thus becoming more fatal. Questions about the treatment efficiency of the pathogens still have not been answered due to their highly mobile and resistant state. Nevertheless, success rates have been significantly low due to rapid mutation and changes that these organisms undergo throughout the period.
The characteristics seen in E. aerogenes are the result of their survival environments and nature. They are classified as facultative anaerobes, implying that they are capable of surviving and showing their full-blown effects on both aerobic and anaerobic environments. These microbes and their effects on humans is particularly important because of their widespread distribution in water, sewage, and soil. They are well known to act as opportunistic pathogens, which are generally disease-causing microbes. To understand the effects of these microbes on organisms, a study of the most common human parts that manifest their effects were put into consideration. According to Obenauf & Finazzo (2015), E. aerogenes usually causes eye and skin infections, meningitis, pneumonia, and urinary tract infections among humans.
Materials and Method
- Bacterial cultures
- Conventional identification kit.
- Enteric-Tek system
The isolation of E. aerogenes from the human urinary tract was conducted according to the procedure documented by Langley et al. (2001). This was done through two patients in the emergency department. The drug resistance patterns were investigated for the two E. aerogenes strains to understand the effectiveness of antibiotics on these pathogens. The introduction was done together with carbapenems with the goal of reaching the control stage by dissolving the shell that prevents antibiotics to attack and dissolve the bacterium. This bacterium is still considered an important MDR pathogen, especially in the ICUs where most of the fatalities occur as it is highly resistant to treatment using antibiotics.
E. aerogenes strains indicated similar patterns in antibiotic resistance. This increase is attributed to the introduction of extended-spectrum cephalosporins in antibiotic therapy. There were significant characterizations of porin mutations in clinical isolations to achieve this objective. Results from the analysis indicated close proximity between the action of the antibiotics and effectiveness in eliminating the bacteria. This was reinforced by the presence of identical regulators and adaptive response mechanisms.
Obenauf & Finazzo (2015) observed that most infections leading to illnesses caused by E. aerogenes result from extended exposure to these bacteria in nosocomial settings such as hospitals, nursing homes, or intensive care units. They are able to reproduce rapidly and adapt fast to their new environments thus causing multiple infections. Treatment has been complicated by the rapid mutations undergone by these bacteria. Due to the commonality of their existence in hospitals and other nosocomial settings, they have been exposed to massive doses of antibiotics and have since mutated. Traditional approaches to treatment including sing-agent antimicrobial therapy are no longer effective due to these changes.
Consequently, E. aerogenes produces beta-lactamases enzymes that cleave to the central ring structure of beta-lactam antibiotics rendering them ineffective. This causes the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria that can only be treated through the adoption of a combination of therapy regimes with different antibiotics to counter the effects of the bacteria.
Langley J. M., Hanakowski M., Leblanc J. C. (2001). Unique epidemiology of nosocomial urinary tract infection in children. Am. J. Infect. Control 29 94–98
Obenauf, S., & Finazzo, S. (2015). Microbiology fundamentals (3rd ed.). New York: Mcgraw-Hill Education.
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