Research Papers

Research Paper on Internet Protocol (IP)

1. To understand the process of IP packets and their routing one must understand the notions of general ideas of Internet Protocol (IP) and routers’ operations. Internet Protocol is a set of instructions for operating the terminals that have access to Internet. In simple terms IP is simply and address of terminal in the network. When one terminal sends info to the other it uses own IP address to identify itself and addressee IP to make the network components know where the information should be sent. The Router is the part of network that knows where the info needs to be sent and what is the best route to get there.

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In case when the both IP owners (for example two computers) are located within one network – the router will not take part in the process since two computers know each other “face to face” and need no assistance of router in data transmission. If there is a situation when many routers involved – the new part of networking is used – Routing Information Protocol. In addition data transfer will take more time and more hops (transfers from one router to the other) undertaken.

2. Routing Information Protocol swaps routing tables, which are information knowledge bases for routers to understand where the sent IP packet must be redirected. Basically the RI protocol swaps the information among routers on the description of the data that will arrive soon and where it needs to go then. The routers work with each other to forecast the level of occupation for next period of time and then determine the path that will involve those routers that are capable of transmitting the volume of data and make it in a shorter period of time. RIP is the part of this process that has control over it and knows everything.

3. The port number is used to determine what kind of activity between two terminals should be taking place. There are unified port numbers (like #21 is for File Transfer (FTP) activities) and dynamic (those that can have different activities performed based on the mutual agreement). When one terminal send the request to the other for some set of data – it also points out what port will be open and awaiting for the feedback. The recipient, upon the verification, of this data is able to launch the requested activity and send the feedback to the requestor, which will receive it back through the open port specified in the request.

4. Internet Protocol (IP) and Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) are essential parts of IP Networking. As mentioned above IP is responsible for assigning the addresses to sender and recipient and TCP is responsible for delivering of data from one terminal to the other.

TCP is a mechanism which breaks down the message (email, HTML, any other format) into easy to send batches called IP packets and then uses IP to send them. After the IP packets reach the destination TCP of the recipient terminal constructs the message back out of many IP packets using the same logic to preserve consistency. IP is responsible for correct delivery and TCP for integrity of the data.

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