This study discusses the primary influences upon ornament design in Victorian Britain as posed by British authors between 1831 and 1901. The research explores the manufacturer and critic’s influences who shape the view of ornament design ‘especially referring to woven fabric’ and the cataloguing of opinion regarding this subject in the middle of the nineteenth century to the late nineteenth century.
The Victorian Period marks a golden age for Britain, both economically and artistically. With the rise of many prominent art, design and intellectual movements, Britain becomes a hub of productivity. Alongside this, many people have a higher disposable income, meaning that design ornaments have the potential to fulfill the aesthetic and often decadent needs of the upper-middle classes. This increased interest of ornament purveyors is clarified by the compilation of the Journal of Design and Manufacturers and the Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of all Nations. The paper will focus on analyzing the defining factor in ornament production, and poses the question: During the Victorian Period, what key factors affected ornament design and the way that it was produced? And how did tastes change and in turn change ornament design in Victorian Britain?
The essay begins with a discussion of the lack of a style uniqueness as discussed in the 1840 book, “The House Decorator and Painter’s Guide,” written by decorators Henry and Aaron Arrowsmith. The paper then reviews the style debate through essays by A. W. N. Pugin’s “Contrasts; or a Parallel between the noble edifices of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries and similar buildings of the present day,” published in 1836. Owen Jones’ “The Grammar of Ornament,” published in 1856, explains the relationship between design and application of ornament. Subsequently, the essay will explore the Great Exhibition of 1851 through a paper on The Exhibition as a lesson in Taste, by Ralph Nicholson Wornum. Lastly, the paper will discuss the approach of the Arts and Crafts style through a review of the Linda Parry book “Textiles of the Arts and Crafts Movement.” The chosen sources for this paper are archived data and historical essays. The methodology for completing this paper will entail reading several relevant articles, assessing their content, and drawing conclusions regarding the interplay between class, taste, function and ornament design.
The relevance of this essay lies in the understanding of what drives ornament design throughout this period – specifically the dichotomy of art alongside production; the newfound interest of the middle classes in ornament design, culminating in the Great Exhibition and why this transition was significant. Through the appreciation of what precisely constituted the primary drive behind the creation of these designs, we can further understand how this change affected some of the ornament designs that we see today.
Arrowsmiths’ “The House Decorator and Painter’s Guide”
In their book “The House Decorator and Painter’s Guide” published as early as in 1840 the two decorators Henry and Aaron Arrowsmith performed research on the subject of general interior house decoration, often overlooked by their contemporaries, despite being an art with universal application. According to the authors’ perception, most of their colleagues were focused more on architecture history, e.g. antiquity aesthetics, rather than on proposing new design solutions or developing applied theory of modern styles. In their work the authors attempted to supply the deficiency in research on house interior decoration and to careful investigate the true principles of design and character in order to formulate them explicitly as a guideline for decorators.
The authors criticized common practice for their time to apply all the external ornaments of the Greeks and Romans to the interior of their contemporary dwellings, without any regard being paid to their original uses, or any authority on which to found their present application. According to them such attempts make an interior of a modern drawing-room resemble a temple being an absurd. As another ill treatment of style the authors refer to mixing pure Greek or Roman specimens with Gothic.
The authors aimed with their work “to remedy the evil which has rendered those of the present day so defective, by placing before the decorator efficient designs, gathered from authorities”. Also the authors were among first to systematically define the ornaments and attributes of Gothic and Elizabethan decoration, as well as those of the French and English styles.
In conclusion to provided examples and clarifications to specific designs applications, the authors proposed a number of remarks they believed to be important for proper interior designs. The authors stated that the ultimate goal for house decorator is to make an ornament of the apartments to please the viewers, and in order to do that it must be appropriate to the purpose of this very apartment. Regarding application the classic styles the authors emphasized that it is important to retain the spirit of classic rather then to adopt blindly a servile imitation of original works. They argued that for every style of art the most characteristic ornaments must be carefully studied and “no alteration should be allowed which does not accord with the general feature of the order”. The authors suggested that:
Nothing can be more offensive to the educated and critical eye than the blending of the ornaments of one mode with the outline of another, or the intermixture of decorations, which although equally calculated to please, affect the mind differently; some producing the idea of grandeur and magnificence; some of lightness and elegance; while others call to our imagination the days of chivalry and romance, and stir in us the desire for the tournament and the chase, the hawking and the banquet, with all the rural and proud magnificence of ancient baronial authority (p.117).
While “The House Decorator and Painter’s Guide” could provide a contemporary decorator with a number of valuable insights and examples, it still discussed mostly only the proper application of classic styles without introducing any unique forms and styles.
Augustus Welby Pugin and his “Contrasts”
Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin (1 March 1812 – 14 September 1852) was a prominent English architect, designer, and theorist of design, whose “Contrasts: or, a Parallel between the Noble Edifices of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries, and Similar Buildings of the Present Day: Shewing the Present Decay of Taste: Accompanied by Appropriate Text” (1836) placed him at once ahead of the pioneers in design theory of his days and made a profound impact on the development of decorative and architectural taste of the 19th century. In this work Pugin, as well as in his later works, advocates the importance of high taste in architecture and ornament and passionately presents his vision to his contemporaries.
First published in 1836, Contrasts rapidly made Pugin a name as it was a revolutionary architectural manifesto of the nineteenth century and the first canonical work on modern Western architecture. In a devastating text and a series of satirical “before and now” plates and devastating comments in which Pugin aimed to contrast the splendor of medieval architecture of a proper, honest, and high Gothic design, with the fatigued neo-classical constructions of the degraded contemporary industrial city. These comparisons addressed the failings and inappropriate uses of the neo-classic style, being Pugin’s first step in his lifelong struggle for advocating the medieval forms of Britain’s Catholic past, which made his name synonymous with the nineteenth century Gothic Revival movement. It would be difficult to tell which was more explosive, the text or the eleven plates of highly satirical contrasts with which the book concluded. The theme of the book is succinctly stated on the first page:
On comparing the Architectural Works of the present Century with those of the Middle Ages, the wonderful superiority of the latter must strike every attentive observer; and the mind is naturally led to reflect on the causes which have wrought this mighty change (p. 1).
In his book Pugin argued that the reason for this change was the Protestant Reformation, as decayed faith throughout Europe in the fifteenth century led men to dislike, and ultimately forsake, the principles and architecture which originated in the self-denying Catholic principle and admire and adopt the luxurious styles of ancient Paganism.
Pugin loathed the buildings of his century and claimed “it would be extremely difficult, if not impossible, to find one amongst the immense mass which could be handed down to succeeding ages as an honourable specimen of the architectural talent of the time” (p.31). There could be no solution, he felt – “unless the same feelings which influenced the old designers in the composition of their Works, can be restored: – a result which, though I most fervently wish, I dare not at present hope for. But I feel thoroughly convinced, that it is only by similar glorious feelings that similar glorious results can be obtained” (p iii). Here we have in a few words that characteristic Victorian compounding of architecture and ethics to which Geoffrey Scott gave the name “The Ethical Fallacy” (pp. 97).
For Pugin the question of style was no mere aesthetic preference, it was rather a question of how architecture affects the human person on a profound level and thus how its very form, crafting and care, may have a spiritual importance. To paraphrase St. Gregory the Great, the sacral buildings are bibles in stone. Therefore proper Christian architecture should be like a good book which unfolds the sacred doctrines and teachings of Christianity. Pugin sought to open wide the pages of that book to what they felt was its best and brightest passage: the Gothic style.
In his work Pugin does not view ornament as a separate field of study but rather like a integral part of the architecture extensively effecting overall aesthetic judgment regarding its style. Discussing the state of architecture in England immediately preceding the change of religion from Catholicism to Protestantism Puginj claimed that at that time the art of glass painting, enamelling, the miniatures and illuminations of manuscripts of this period had arrived at its greatest perfection, “deserving the highest admiration, both for the purity of drawing and the brilliancy and arrangement of the colours”. Also he stated that that “… notwithstanding the great variety of form and ornament employed at this epoch, we may easily trace the unity of ideas and principles that pervaded and influenced their designs; so that we are able, without hesitation, to ascribe the date to their erections, from barely inspecting the edifices” (p.5).
In contrast to that in his analysis of “the wretched state of architecture at the present day” Pugin writes that:
All the mechanical contrivances and inventions of the day, such as plastering, composition, papier-mâché, and a host of other deceptions, only serve to degrade design, by abolishing the variety of ornament and ideas, as well as the boldness of execution, so admirable and beautiful in ancient carved works (p.35)
Once again, similar to Henry and Aaron Arrowsmith, in his work Pugin advocates for beauty and splendor of classical styles and their proper application, including application of ornament as an integral part, and contrasts it to low style of the modern architecture, lacking any forward-looking insights.
Owen Jones and “The Grammar of Ornament”
A prophetic note seemed indeed to have been struck when in 1856 Owen Jones wrote in “The Grammar of Ornament” that a new style of ornament ought to be devised independent of any new architectural style, and that the new ornamentation would make the most effective means of introducing a new style, since architecture borrows ornament and adapts it, but never develops it independently, on its own. (p. 154).
In his “Grammar of Ornament” Jones first formulated theoretical demands regarding ornament as an independent art. Theses outlined in his work such as: “all ornament should be based on geometrical construction…”: “all junctions of curved lines with curved (lines), or of curved lines with straight (lines), should be tangential with each other…”: “colour is used to assist in the development of form, and to distinguish objects or parts of objects one from another …”, etc. exercised an enormous influence on the taste of his times (pp. 5-6).
In “The Grammar of Ornament”, the most important work on decoration published in the middle of the century (in 1910 it had gone through nine editions), the flat ornament in the Oriental style should play a preponderant role. Flat ornaments of Chinese, Indian, Persian, or Moorish origin are represented in the Grammar in dozens of plates. Egyptian decorations are cited too, and the linear ornamentation of Greek vases is distinctly preferred to the more three-dimensional style of the Romans. An opinion is always given as to the value or the non-value of the ornament, and it is always in favor of a sign or symbol which is developed on the plane of the surface without any attempt at depth. Prehistoric decorative forms are shown as well as many examples of Celtic book ornaments, while the traditional Western styles, from the Gothic to the Baroque, take up comparatively little space. “The world has become weary of the eternal repetition of the same conventional forms which have been borrowed from styles which have passed away” (p. 154). It was not in 1896, but in 1856 when that statement was made, as well as the following: “The principles discoverable in the works of the past belong to us; not so the results.” (p. 8), supporting the idea that the new forms should derived from principles of older developments, rather then in copying their forms.
Owen Jones, an industrial designer and interior decorator as well as an architect, conducted his fight against three-dimensional ornament in decoration of the flat surface with two weapons, one of which was the complement of the other. In addition to his theoretical demands and their illustration in instructive examples, he introduced sketches for actual use. True, the silk fabrics of the period around 1870 (see monochrome blue on blue, in a damask weave, plate 89 in “The Grammar of Ornament”) clearly reached back to the Gothic style, but, as an independent development, shift from historicism, as understood in the fullest sense of the word, and point distinctly in the direction of new art. In the forms of plants, Jones senses forces of vegetative growth and movements that seem to create the pattern out of themselves as in an almost abstract manifestation of energies. Stylized into flat bodies in a soft and gliding movement, without relief or inner design, but sharply confined and maintained in the flatness of the plane except for unimportant intersections, forms and complementary counter-forms of almost equal size are densely and concisely united. Despite the smallness of the forms’ details and the change from blunt to smooth and from dark to light which, although uninterrupted, breaks, precisely for this reason, the continuity of the movement and the large, lively curves give an impression of almost static calm.
Owen Jones postulated in theory that: “Beauty of form is produced by lines growing out one from the other in gradual undulations…” and also declared that: “In surface decoration all line should flow out of a parent stem. Every ornament, however distant, should be traced to its branch and root.” (p. 6).
On the subject of forms borrowed from nature, “The Grammar of Ornament” insists on demonstrating that “in the best periods of art all ornament was rather based upon an observation of the principles which regulate the arrangement of form in nature than on an attempt to imitate the absolute forms of these works” (p.154). Jones attaches great importance to the relationship between forms, to their structure and their natural development, and refuses to pursue the imitative representation of existing examples. He demonstrates this principle in a design of chestnut leaves (see plate 97 in “The Grammar of Ornament”) which are not an ornament in themselves but can be used as the starting point for an ornamental pattern: spread out flat, with precise outlines and stressed rhythm. Here we see the beginnings of a development at the culmination of which we find Van de Velde’s stained glass window, Voysey’s wallpapers, or other works of Art Nouveau. At the same time, there is an anticipation of the Japanese style of the nineties in Jones’ design of chestnut leaves which shows how early this type of Eastern style had taken root in English design, thereby preparing the way for its full flowering almost four decades later.
Great Exhibition of 1851 and Wornum’s “The Exhibition as a lesson in Taste”
The Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations, or more commonly, the Crystal Palace Exhibition or the Great Exhibition of 1851, as the first modern world’s fair with more than a hundred thousand separate exhibits, was the single most obvious outward symbol of mid-Victorian progress and prosperity. Held in an industrial-age, prefabricated iron and glass structure 563 meters (1,848 feet) long by 125 meters (410 feet) wide, the exhibition drew more than six million visitors, including Queen Victoria, who admired the fourteen thousand exhibits of machinery, fine arts, industrial products, and raw materials.
The Great Exhibition of 1851 was the defining event of the mid-nineteenth century. It Great Exhibition defined the emerging values of mid-Victorian England: work, commerce, self-discipline, and consumption, as well as reflected the new relationships between people and products in the nineteenth century. It also began a debate on problems of architecture and industrial design that culminated in the modernist aesthetic of the early twentieth century. The Great Exhibition of 1851 demonstrated how middle-class values of consumption could be grafted onto the emerging working class. Part of the lure of consumption was the concept of upward mobility that became associated with the cultivation of good taste. Thus another educational thrust of the Great Exhibition was the improvement of public taste. Prince Albert described the task of educating the public in matters of taste as the “marriage of Art and Industry.” This reflected the merging of aristocratic definitions of taste (art) with new industrial processes (industry).
The contemporary critics stated that while Britain was a leader in world’s industrial production, the design of its products in many cases had low tast. The problem of taste could be primarily attributed to issues of the proper ornamentation application to industrial products, without impairing their practicality. The debates regarding taste was one of the most important and enduring consequences of the Great Exhibition of 1851. The reforms initiated by Arts and Crafts Movement started, when the young William Morris after attending the Crystal Palace exposition and described in his works the presented items as “wonderfully ugly.” Prior to that, in the late 1840s, Morris together with a group of his peers from Oxford University established so called “Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood”. This Brotherhood united artists, poets and designers, who were deeply concerned with art not only from aesthetic perspective, but with its social and moral function in the rapidly changing industrial society.
Morris perceived that the products presented at the Great Exhibition illustrated the excessiveness and even moral dangers resulting from mechanized production, as the manufacturers which became able not only to produce whatever they wanted in the unlimited quantities, neglected the beauty of the products they created.
In the years following the Great Exhibition of 1851, Morris became widely recognized as a successful designer. His textiles, wallpapers, and furnishings, produced by Morris & Co. were designed with the idea that people should not own anything that is “not either useful or beautiful”. Ironically, the products of Morris & Co.,due to being handmade and exquisitely designed, where far from being affordable for wide public. However, the reform introduced by Arts and Crafts Movement, largely deriving from Moris’ theories, was an important critique poorly crafted and excessively ornamented products presented on the Great Exhibition of 1851. Restrained ornamentation and aesthetic of simplicity of the handcrafted products, designed according to the ideas of the theorists of the Arts and Crafts Movement, had enormous influence and gave impulse to similar movements in other countries (e.g. Austrian “Vienna Workshops”, American Gustav Stickley’s “Craftsman” designs), shaping design theory of the early twentieth century.
At the same time Great Exhibition, embracing industrial transformation processes, gave rise to somewhat opposite set of theories which emphasized prevalence of function over ornamentation, and later evolved into modernism in design. This school of thought had its origins in the obvious gulf between the heavily ornamented “manufactured products” of the exhibition and the machinery located inside the Hall of Machines. This was articulated most clearly by observers who contrasted unnecessary ornament to the functional designs of the machines; the steam locomotive, for example, possessed an “external form [that was] dictated by intrinsic necessities.” The principle of the prevalence of function over decoration of the object culminated in the modernist aesthetic of functionality of early twentieth-century design.
The problem of ornamentation created a national debate concerning taste, national identity, and industrial design that was one of the most enduring legacies of the Great Exhibition. The search for a national style became part of the rhetoric of world’s fairs after 1851; and design questions became linked to nationalism. Excellence in manufactured goods and tasteful ornamentation were not only the key to market share but also signs of cultural superiority.
One of the important works to highlight this event with specific focus on ornament was Ralph Wornum’s “The Exhibition as a lesson in Taste”, an “essay on ornamental art as displayed in the industrial exhibition in Hyde Park, in which the different styles are compared with a view to the improvement of taste in home manufactures”. “The Exhibition as a Lession in Taste” consists of three parts, general considerations of the value of ornament, survey of the historical styles and a consideration of the exhibits so far as they are ornamented.
As Wornum wrote, a style in ornament is analogous to hand in writing, with every age or nation having own “peculiarity in his mode of writing”. In his work advocates the value of ornamentation:
It is evident that Taste must be the paramount agent in all competitions involving ornamental design, where the means or methods of production are equally advanced ; but where this is not the case, the chances are still very greatly in the favour of Taste over mere mechanical facility, provided low price be not the primary object (p.I***).
According to Wornum historical styles were indispensable as, after all, all works without exception are based on the past. In his essay Wornum distinguished nine major styles: three antique, three medieval and three modern styles. The antique styles include Egyptian, Greek and Roman, the medieval – Byzantine, Saracenic and Gothic (with Lombard and Norman being varieties of Byzantine, and the three together comprising Romanesque), and the Renaissance, Cinquecento and Louis Quatorze being modern styles.
Regarding the Great Exhibition Wornum noted that “once the overwhelming impression of admiration and wonder at the unparalleled collection, and the admirable arrangement of the whole, subsided” a few conclusions may be viewed upon detailed examination. Wornum claims that:
…there is nothing new in the Exhibition in ornamental design; not a scheme, not a detail that has not been treated over and over again in ages that are gone ; that the taste of the producers generally is uneducated, and that in nearly all cases where this is not so, the influence of France is paramount in the European productions ; bearing exclusively in the two most popular traditional styles of that country – the Renaissance and the Louis Quinze – with more or less variation in the treatment and detail. (p. V***)
In a nutshell, Wornum viewed the Exhibition as an opportunity to capture various ornamental expressions of the world’s industry enabling manufacturers to make their own uses of them, cultivating a pure and rational individualities of design, which should largely contribute towards the general elevation of the social standards of the Taste.
Arts and Crafts style in “Textiles of the Arts and Crafts Movement.
The Arts and Crafts Movement refers to a British, Canadian, and American aesthetic movement occurring in at the end of the 19th century and in the early years of the 20th century. It was a reformist movement which had significant influenced on British, Canadian, and American decorative arts, architecture, crafts, and even garden. John Ruskin and William Morris were perhaps two of the most widely and best-known read theorists and practitioners of the nineteenth century modern art movements. This movement was largely inspired by John Ruskin’s writings with its romantic idealization of a craftsperson proud of his personal crafts; it was at its height between approximately 1880 and 1910. While Morris could be considered to be a major innovator, Ruskin inspired the group of young artists to create in 1848 the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. This brotherhood of artists, formed by students at the Academy of Art in London, was the force behind the development of what is termed the Aesthetic Movement, which was at its height in the 1870s and 1880s. This group of artists also may be viewed as the parent of the Arts and Crafts Movement of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Artists involved in both the Aesthetic and Arts and Crafts movements, their friends and associates, not only advocated reform in the visual arts but also recognized the need to improve taste in all aspects of life, including style and ornament.
In March 1887, seven artists and designers (the best known of whom today is probably Walter Crane) met in London to draw up a letter inviting artists and craftsmen to form the nucleus of an association “for securing an Exhibition of the Combined Arts.” The group’s first exhibition, named Arts and Crafts Exhibition, was held in 1888, demonstrating English textiles throughout Europe and the U.S., influencing designers and attracting a large public and is generally held to mark the birth of the influential British Arts and Crafts movement, which aimed: “To revive the desire for beauty in the things of everyday use and to educate the public taste for art born of one’s own day and in one’s own country…”
Well-known practitioners of this movement, besides Morris and Ruskins, were Charles Robert Ashbee, T. J. Cobden Sanderson, Elbert Hubbard, Walter Crane, Nelson Dawson, Phoebe Anna Traquair, Herbert Tudor Buckland, Charles Rennie Mackintosh, Christopher Dresser, Edwin Lutyens, William De Morgan, Ernest Gimson, William Lethaby, Edward Schroeder Prior, Frank Lloyd Wright, Gustav Stickley, Greene & Greene, Charles Voysey, Christopher Whall and artists in the Pre-Raphaelite movement.
The Arts and Crafts Movement emerged primarily as a quest for authentic and meaningful styles for the modern age, the 19th century, as a reaction to the eclectic revival of historic styles of the Victorian era, from one side, and the unsophisticated in design machine-made production resulting from the Industrial Revolution, from the other side. Considering the machines to be the root of all mundane and repetitive evils, some of the advocates of this movement entirely departed from the use of machines towards handcraft. The Arts and Crafts movement could be viewed a protest to industrialization; in fact it was not anti-industrial or anti-modern. Many of the European advocates of the movement believed that machines were necessary, but in order to perform mundane and repetitive tasks, allowing a person to concentrate on craftwork. They argued that compromise between the skill of the craftsman and the efficiency of the machine should be found, however not compromising the taste.
“Textiles of the Arts and Crafts Movement” by Linda Parry This is a comprehensive survey of textile designs in the English Arts and Crafts style, discussing the whole range of Arts and Crafts textiles-printed and woven fabrics, tapestries and carpets, lace and embroidery ranging from the works of movement fathers, William Morris, C.F.A. Voysey, Lindsay Butterfield and Arthur Silver (who designed Liberty’s “Peacock Feather” print) to less familiar examples of the crafts.
The book covers the years from 1888, when the Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society was founded and opened its first exhibition, to 1916, a point which marks a change in style and an exhibition at the Royal Academy, a body against which the artists were acting when they established the society. The introduction sets the scene for the book by exploring reasons behind the founding of the movement, in particular dissatisfaction towards the undemocratic nature of the Royal Academy and its selection committee. Parry then charts the members’ artistic and industrial backgrounds from the mid-nineteenth century, the evolution of style and the contemporary fashions for home furnishings, before a chapter devoted to the textiles involved in exhibitions. These included embroideries, printed and woven textiles, both patterned repeats and individual motifs. Besides that the book explores the designers, manufacturers and shops, discussing primarily home-furnishing textiles and modes, such as wall panels and hangings, furnishing fabrics and carpets, rather than clothing and worn textiles.
The chief begetter of reform in all the decorative arts was A.W. Pugin, who coined the phrase “true principles” in relation to design and ornament. However, only in 10 years later, at the Great Exhibition of 1851, his ideas received wide recognition. The sight of Crystal Palace, and its enormous collection of expositions, turned to be overwhelming for a number of critics and artists, driving them to the conclusions that some standards should be introduced to restrain the growing vulgarity of that first consumerist age.
Another prominent pioneer in taste and design research was Owen Jones with his book “The Grammar of Ornament”, first published as early as in 1856 and which is still in print. However design solutions proposed by Jones, including fabrics, were technically complicated and quite expensive for wide range of consumers. It was Morris who made significant contribution towards resurrection of traditional textile arts and popularization of good taste among wider public. He also was one of the fathers of Arts and Crafts movement, whose advocates referred back to an idealized medieval past creating guilds and workshops promoting handicrafts. Morris and other theorists and practitioners of Arts and Crafts movement believed that the “true principles” of good design besides aesthetics bear also deeper moral values, making lives better. This postulate is difficult to prove, however it received wide acknowledgment among architects and craftsman ever, and as the century wore on, the days came, when it was possible to be both right and romantic as “Arts & Crafts Textiles” demonstrates.
Arrowsmith, Henry William, Arrowsmith, Aaron. 1811. The House Decorator and Painter’s Guide: Containing a Series of Designs for Decorating Apartments, Suited to the Various Styles of Architecture. London: Thomas Kelly.
Jones, Owen. 1856. The Grammar of Ornament.
Parry, Linda 2005. Textiles of the Arts and Crafts Movement. London: Thames and Hudson.
Pugin, Augustus Welby Northmore. 1836. Contrasts; or a Parallel between the Noble Edifices of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries and Similar Buildings of the Present Day: shewing the present decay of taste. London: A. W. N. Pugin
Scott, Geoffrey. 1956. The Architecture of Humanism, A Study in the History of Taste. N.Y.: Garden City.
Wornum, Ralph Nicholson. 1851. The Exhibition as a Lesson in Taste. The Art Journal Illustrated Catalogue: the Industry of All Nations 1851:I***-XXII**
NOTE!!! Free research paper samples and essay examples available online are plagiarized! You can easily order a custom written research paper at EffectivePapers.com now:
EffectivePapers.com is a professional writing service, committed to writing top-quality custom research papers, term papers, essays, book reviews and even dissertations. We write custom papers from scratch with the help of our qualified Masters and Ph.D. writers. Just order an customized research paper about Ornament Philosophy at our website, and we will write your research paper at affordable prices. We are available 24/7 to help students with writing research papers for high school, college, and university.