Research Papers

Machine Design Research Paper

The following report is a summary of machine design which is a topic in mechanical engineering. The research entailed figuring out the operations of machines. There was also use of analytical skills which aided in the design and also assisted in future solution development that was guided by mechanical characteristics. It was a structured way of analyzing machines. The topic has assisted since omission of information that is important and errors have been reduced, barriers due to experience are eliminated and thus all areas that are important areas when designing machines are considered .

To understand various systems there were several aspects that were considered which include flows, physics, function, fabrication and form. The purpose of the machine is stated in its function describing why it is necessary. It is inclusive of the place it is needed, by who, when they need it and the function performed.

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The form describes the appearance of the machine and its movement. The sequence of the system should be understood, it’s direction and where it begins and ends. Its characteristics make up the physics aspect and also the limitations of the machine’s performance are included here. Fabrication involves a description of how the machine was built as well as how the structure influences its performance. The state of the machine is also vital which is whether it is at rest, running at low speeds or high speeds, the medium it is in which is ground, air or water and when it is subjected to maximum conditions .

An example of machine design would be the braking system of a vehicle. Its function is to reduce the speed of the vehicle, and should function under all conditions and at all times. The form of the system included a frame, caliper, rim, rotor and tire. The various types of flow that occur in the system include information, mass, momentum and energy. In mass flow, there is flow of fluid to the calipers. Momentum flow involves the transfer of momentum from the master cylinder to the fluid and from the fluid to the calipers. Energy flow is the work done by the fluid on the calipers. It is important to note here that there is no work done on the fluid by the master cylinder. The flow of information is done when the position of the master cylinder is switched. This id determined from the position of the caliper piston .

The physics behind it is then analyzed. The mass of the fluid remains constant which means that the fluid that comes from the master cylinder is the same as the one that flows to the calipers. On the energy aspect, there is a force that is exerted on the fluid by the master cylinder piston which occurs over a distance. There is also a force exerted on the piston of the caliper over another distance. Assuming that there is conservation of energy and when it is transferred in the system, the work done on the fluid by the master cylinder is the same as that done on the pistons of the caliper by the fluid. If the positions of the pistons of the caliper are measured, it is possible to evaluate a shift in the position of the piston of the master cylinder .

The fabrication of the system includes various components such as brake pads, calipers, pistons, and rotor. The manufacturing process of the pistons whose material is stainless steel involves turning of the part that is axi-symmetric and grinding to eliminate marks obtained during turning and give it a smooth finish. The rotor which is made of steel is cast or formed such that the part is large and heavy and has a fairly rough surface. Finally turning is done on the rotor to ensure flat surfaces and machining marks are evident. The caliper is composed of cast iron which is cast such that the edges are rounded and the surface finish is rough. The brake pad is made of a metal that is formed where there are machining marks, the edges are smooth, and the shape is irregular. It is then joined to the caliper through assembling and has no evidence of snap fits, fasteners or welding .

From this research it was clear that a huge amount of analysis carried out in mechanical engineering is dependent on flow. The main aspects to consider are the outcome, the previous state of the system and the change experienced. There different forms of flow which include momentum, energy and mass. The flow should be understood as well as the corresponding variables. The direction of flow and the physics that defines it is also vital. It is also proper to establish the mass volume as well as the control volume. It is expected that the control volume will be positioned well such that analysis of the system is simple. The control volume has features which are solid such that the boundaries of the control volume can exert forces and the boundary can also be acted upon by any forces exerted on it .

A reference coordinate system should be established such that they are perpendicular or aligned to flow. It is a must that for momentum flow the reference frames used are inertial. The boundaries should be positioned beneficially such that the unknown and known variables are understood. The boundaries should be positioned in a way to ensure analysis is simple. For purposes of the rough equations there should be balance equations for draft flow. The specifics of the balance equation for flow are obtained from the physics of the system and the equations are then solved .

The control volumes should therefore have boundaries that are good such that across the boundary, the position of the material is known which is whether it is inside or outside the control volume. This is essential in the analysis of machines. A grasp and use of mass balance is also essential when analyzing machines. The mass of a system usually has energy and momentum. There is the mass entering the system, that which is stored and that which comes out. The power and energy of a system also need to be balanced such that the power going in is the same as that at the exit and that stored .

In momentum flow it is important to note that in a system where Newton’s First Law is observed, it is considered to have an inertial frame such that he object remains at rest unless acted upon by an external force. They move at a velocity which is constant relative to other inertial frames. From our previous example, we need the speed of the pistons of the caliper to be a function of the piston of the master cylinder. The pistons have cross sectional areas which are considered as well as the design such that the pistons of the caliper at the front move at a velocity that is the velocity of the pistons at the rear. It is also important to note that the volume of the brake fluid remains constant when it is compressed hence it is incompressible .

From the research it was evident that manufacturing involves coming up with process, equipment and products that fulfill the needs of a customer and build wealth. Manufacturing, design and marketing teams therefore work together to come up with a satisfactory product. Examples of processes of manufacturing are die-casting, milling, plasma-cutting, forging, casting and plastic injection. It was also observed that application of threaded mechanisms was in lead screws used in lathes and mills as well as bolts. Grounding is done on either the screw or nut .

The research included machines which were hydraulic. Bernoulli’s equation is considered here such that during steady flow there is a path along which the particles of the fluid travel and are constant. In flow that is one dimensional and for stream lines in a specific area, the velocity and pressure have a value that is constant. The equation can only be applied for points that are on a single streamline and not where there is a mix of fluids. Energy losses that occur due to effects that are viscous are neglected. This characterizes the flow as in viscid. In a state where the flow is steady, the speed of the flow can be a function of the position but not time .

Heat transfer is used to transmit thermal energy to a system which is in a colder state. The work done is part of the mechanical energy of the system and heat is considered to be thermal energy. In the boundary of the system there could be thermal, elastic, gravity and kinetic energy stored. The inputs of mechanical and thermal energy are the same outputs. The transfer of energy is the work performed by the machine. The transferred energy is also known as heat and brings about a difference in the temperature of the system .

A system which is uncoupled is known to be non-thermodynamic and storage of energy is done separately. The thermodynamics of the system of the machine includes internal energy and thus have a system that is coupled and thermodynamic. Storage which is coupled can be shown by thermal expansion. Solids have coupling that is small which means that the thermal expansion is small. Liquids that are boiling have coupling that is very huge hence huge thermal expansion. Gases have coupling which is strong which means that the thermal expansion is extensive. Work and heat can therefore be used to increase or decrease gas temperature because of coupling energy. Without the work that comes out of the system, the work produced can reduce the temperature of a gas. In the case of energy storage that is uncoupled, this is not possible. Heat pumping occurs when work enters a system and at a certain temperature and exits at a higher temperature .

A refrigerator or a heat pump has a system where the storage is that of coupled energy and the temperature goes from low to high through input of work in the cycle. When temperature goes from high to low during heat transfer and does not generate any work, the process is said to have a loss in potential energy. The balance in entropy is produced by the loss in energy .

Research in machine design assisted in estimation and modeling of processes such that important aspects of a problem are identified. In each system there are those elements that are common and need to be known. The research provided an organized method of carrying out machine analysis and made it easier to identify the key things. The benefits was that the method of thinking was systematic and barriers due to experience eliminated. Calculations are carried out in design such that the desired load and speed is considered. The specific material is described and particular dimensions given to fully describe a component such that when it is manufactured it can fully support the loads and perform at optimum conditions. The design has to be so efficient such that the functional needs are met at the lowest cost possible .

The process is in the design of machines. It involves various forms of energy being translated to mechanical forms which are more useful. The aim is to use machines to generate output that is useful to humans. The individual parts that make up a machine have to be designed independently. The course assisted in selection of the best material inclusive of the shape and other characteristics such as resistance to wear. The calculated load that a machine can withstand assists to create its dimensions and is dependent on its properties of strength. The process of manufacturing should be specified to enable a manufacturer to generate a certain product .

Drawing and coming up with sketches is necessary because it is vital to enable the specifications of a component to be understood such that they can be manufactured. It is one of the most important processes in the design of machines. When sketching it is necessary to establish the function of the part. The designer should know what is necessary and enough to carry out the function. The target audience should be identified and they’re level of knowledge assessed because the products should be more user friendly. The technical aspects as well as those that are not should be established. The designer should also ensure that the customers are familiar with the product .

Orthographic drawings are mostly used in the description of components since it makes it easy to visualize the part. To fully design a machine it is important to separate the components. The objective of the design should be clearly stated. The activities and tasks that will be carried out in the manufacturing process should be listed. The resources that will be required should be identified and confirmed. Examples of these resources are time, people, space, money, hardware and software. The risks that are taken in designing the product should also be identified such that mitigation plans are created in the event they occur. The risks are mainly based on the risks put in designing the machine. The development of a schedule to clearly set out the work and the respective timelines can be done with the use of a Gantt chart. So long as the schedule is followed a machine can be designed and manufactured successfully.

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