Comanche and Apache Essay

History from below considers the perspectives and experiences of the ordinary people and contrasting with the stereotype of the traditional social and political history. The Comanche is a Native American tribe, which was part of the Shoshone tribe that lived in the current day Wyoming. The Comanche took part in the Historical Wars between 1850 and 1870, but they are not mentioned in the text. The Comanches through their heroic equestrians dominating in the Southern Plains contributed significantly in the Texas frontier history during the 18th and 19th centuries (McGinnis, 2012). Comanche lived a relatively nomadic life whose movement was facilitated by the existence of hose and hunted the buffaloes in the plains. The horse defined the way of life of Comanche and helped them during the major wars in history (Wallace & Hoebel, 2013). The minority population had exceptional equestrian skills in horsemanship.

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Comanche invasion in North Texas started in the early eighteenth century when a small band moved to the area. The Comanches fought with the Apaches, a tribe that was already living in the Southern Plains, as they moved to the south. Comanche forced the Apaches to moved further south. Comanches were a formidable force by the mid-18th century in Texas since they were heavily armed (McGinnis, 2012). The Spanish officials lacked weapons to defeat the Comanche militarily and decided to seek peace with the group. In 1772, the Comanche Chief Povea signed a peace treated with the Spanish commitment the minority group to peach with Spaniards (Wallace & Hoebel, 2013). Despite the existence of the peace policy, the Comanche escalated their attacks in the 1780s. The Spanish officials feared that they would lose Texas province. Texas Governor sent his representatives to make peace with Comanches, which led to the Spanish-Comanche Treater of 1785.

Another below group that made significant contributions in history but not mentioned in the book are the Apache. Apaches were North American Indians who inhabited the present day Southeastern and east-central Arizona, western Texas, eastern and southwestern New Mexico, and Southeastern Colorado (Britten, 2017). The Apache natives adopted a nomadic lifestyle, which relied on horse transport while the Plains Apache were farmers. The Plains Apache were forced to retreat to the south and west due to raids from Comanche. From the Apache perspective, the Apache Wars involved a series of conflicts for over fifty years. Also, the North American Indians fought with the American settlers and local tribes including Jicarilla, Chiricahua, Chihenne, Mescalero, and Lipan Apaches. The enemies feared the Apache since they were fighting to retain their traditions, lifestyle, and tribal homelands. The end of the Apache resulted in the prosperity of the American settlers who acquired natural resources, wealth, and land in the Southwest United States.

The Apache played a role in the Indian Wars because Geronimo was a famous Apache Chief who surrendered in 1886. The Apache had exerted fear in the neighboring Indian tribes, the American ruling class, and the Spanish colonialists in Mexico (Britten, 2017). However, the defeat of Apache led to the destruction of the Cherokee nation when the American government introduced a solution to the Indian problem by establishing reservations in 1870. The Apaches were taken to overcrowded reservations in San Carlos (Freedman, 2018). Hostile conditions such as lack of food, poor clothing, and suffering from malaria and smallpox affected the minority group in reservations. Archaic conditions lead to a breakout of Apache warriors including Geronimo, Chiricahua, Mangas, and Nana.

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Britten, T. A. (2017). The Apache Wars: The Hunt for Geronimo, the Apache Kid, and the Captive Boy Who Started the Longest War in American History by Paul Andrew Hutton. Southwestern Historical Quarterly, 120(4), 518-520.
Freedman, J. (2018). Geronimo: Leader of Native American Resistance. Cavendish Square Publishing, LLC.
McGinnis, A. R. (2012). When Courage Was Not Enough: Plains Indians at War with the United States Army. Journal of Military History, 76(2).
Wallace, E., & Hoebel, E. A. (2013). The Comanches: Lords of the south plains (Vol. 34). University of Oklahoma Press.