Hubert Dreyfus has for many years, argued against the concept computers could think as human beings do. He argues that artificial intelligence will never match human intelligence. Over the years, more advanced computers with the ability to perform various activities without human intervention have been developed. While some scientists argue that computers can think independently and take appropriate action, other scientists such as Hubert Dreyfus are of a contrary opinion. Hubert Dreyfus has published several books to discredit the thinking that artificial intelligence will make computers effectively as human beings. Popular publications by Hubert Dreyfus discrediting the notion that computers can think as human beings include Alchemy and Al, What Computers Cannot Do and Mind over Machine. In all the publications he argues that human intelligence is a natural process which cannot be limited or controlled, unlike computer intelligence that is based on the developer’s understanding and ability to model systems which can reason and perform as human beings do. This article reviews Dreyfus arguments on why computers cannot think as human beings.
Artificial intelligence, according to Hubert Dreyfus, is a conscious process influenced by system manipulation, following specific rules and computer programs. Human intelligence is an unconscious process that is not influenced by systems or a set of instructions. Formal rules cannot influence human intelligence, unlike in artificial intelligence where formal rules determine the extent and scope of activities a system can do. Dreyfus thinking that computer intelligence cannot match human intelligence was, to some extent, influenced by scholars of philosophy, such as Marleau Ponty and Heidegger (Dreyfus and Stuart 2). The scholars had reviewed how human beings think through various situations and can respond as compared to computers that function based on the installed set of instructions.
Artificial intelligence relies on the human ability to develop its skills and abilities, unlike human beings who do not rely on computers to develop linguistic, sensorimotor, or technical expertise. Dreyfus argues that human beings or any intelligence systems could not become linguistically socialized into an expert without the contribution of experts in the same field. Computers are not linguistically experienced to perform their tasks without the know-how and support of human beings. Human beings can program computers to understand or interpret instructions based on a given language. Computers rely on human language where humans can develop and depend on their mode of communication without engaging the use of computers (Dreyfus and Stuart 2). Sensorimotor systems of human beings function accurately without external programming, unlike computer networks that cannot configure themselves and operate in a certain way. Computational intelligence relies on human skills for development.
They cannot naturally develop and perform various activities as human beings. Therefore, computers cannot be related to human beings. Their intelligence is not independent of human contribution. Dreyfus further argues that linguistic fluency is one determinant of artificial intelligence. He asserted that the ability to use language competently was related to human beings and not computers. Computers are not able to use expressive communication as much as a human can. Demonstrative communication is an indication of mastery of the ability to communicate. Computer passwords along, and it is upon human beings to encode the words, interpret and take the required actions. Computers cannot include demonstrations in their communication.
Artificial intelligence is based on the coder’s ability to relate with machines, which to some extent requires constant upgrading to keep it on par with development intelligence. Computer intelligence is static, thus only applicable to specific conditions. Dreyfus criticism of artificial intelligence is based on epistemological conventions related to any form of classical artificial intelligence (Dreyfus and Stuart 4). Unnatural intelligence traits cannot be reproduced by formalizing human behavior. Computers are not able to apply given knowledge outside specific contexts. For example, computers programmed to perform precise arithmetical calculations cannot relate concepts of the computation to new arithmetical calculations related but different from what is contained in the coding instructions. Incidences of instructions being ambiguous in case they differ with what is included in coding guidelines are frequent. The nature and number of problems that arise when there is a variation between computer instructions and what is fed into a computer are prevalent. The correct interpretation of guidelines is rare in computers, unlike in human intelligence, how they reason, throughout the application of a given set of instructions, can change to achieve the desired outcome.
From the above discussion, it is evident that according to Hubert Dreyfus, computers cannot reason like human beings. Artificial intelligence, therefore, cannot be compared to human intelligence. Human intelligence is not based on rules to impact behavior, unlike artificial intelligence, that is based on a set of rules. According to Dreyfus, human intelligence is superior to artificial intelligence, and the two cannot be compared. Human intelligence is determined by various conditions human beings find themselves in, unlike artificial intelligence where the set of instructions to guide computer activity is pre-developed and tested before putting the computer in certain areas where they can apply the guidelines. Hubert Dreyfus believed computers could not think like human beings; hence, their intelligence cannot be compared.
Dreyfus, Hubert, and Stuart Dreyfus. “Why computers may never think like people.” Readings in the Philosophy of Technology (2009): 1-16.
EffectivePapers.com is a professional essay writing service committed to writing non-plagiarized custom essays, research papers, dissertations, and other assignments of top quality. All academic papers are written from scratch by highly qualified essay writers. Just proceed with your order, and we will find the best academic writer for you!