Deterioration of environmental situation has become particularly noticeable from the 60-ies of the 20th century. It was the time when the media began to widely spread the message about the consequences of the DDT and other pesticides use, a sharp increase of human waste not digestible in nature in the atmosphere and the hydrosphere, the lack of material and energy resources, etc.
Imbalance in nature is now a major problem of mankind. The consequences of the situation are too serious to be ignored and are able to lead to environmental disasters. The effects of anthropogenic pressures on the natural environment can be the same as the use of atomic weapons, the destruction of life on Earth.
Mechanisms of adaptation of the human and natural systems to rapid environmental changes caused by anthropogenic activity are not effective any more, resulting in degradation of natural ecosystems, affecting the man himself.
History shows that since the early time there were the conflicts between man and nature, which led to environmental crises. However, these were local and regional crises. After, the ancient hunters have wiped out the animals, they can go to another location; ancient farmers and herders can, if the soil was exhausted or the crop became poorer, they could bring new land under cultivation.
The feature of our time is an intense and global human impact on the environment, which are followed by intense and global negative implications. The conflict between man and nature can worsen, among other things, due to the fact that there is no limit to the growth of human material needs, but the capacity of the natural environment to meet these needs are limited. The modern civilization lives using damaging morality of “consumer society.”
Throughout human history, the impact of society on nature has evolved not as a simple linear process. The tense and, in some cases, critical ecological situation prevailing in the second half of this century, is a signal of a new phase in the relationship between society and the natural environment.
Lithosphere (solid shell of the Earth), and especially its upper part, became the object of the most sensitive anthropogenic impact. This is the result of human intrusion into the Earth’s interior; It changes the terrain and natural landscapes; as forced and unjustified seizures of land from agricultural use; the destruction and contamination of soil, desertification and other processes.
Large are the losses of soil resources. Total area lost to world agriculture arable land reached in the 20000000 square kilometers, larger than that of all the arable land used now (about 15000000 square kilometers).
Various forms of soil degradation, associated with human factors, constitute the most important source of losses. From 30% to 80% of the world’s irrigated land is affected by salinity, leaching and waterlogging.
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