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Genetics Essay Example

1. Introduction.
This essay paper investigates the mtDNA and Y chromosome DNA and their function in genetic studies of men and women. Besides, it analyzes the human movement and some aspects of human cultural systems.

2. “Tracking the sexes by their genes.”
In the nucleus of nearly all human cells, there are 46 small structures that are called chromosomes. These chromosomes are made up generally of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).

DNA contains the genetic instructions which make people the way they are. These genetic instructions are written in a four-letter chemical alphabet: A (adenine), T (thymine), C (cytosine) and G (guanine). Researchers can just find a use for about 3% of the DNA in our cells.

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Paternal and maternal lineages. The two well-known types of genetic genealogy tests are the Y-DNA – parental line – and mtDNA – maternal line – genealogical DNA tests.

These tests compare the DNA of a person to that of another to define how many generations ago the two individuals shared their most recent common ancestor. These tests permit two people to identify with all the certainty that they are related to a particular time frame or the vice versa.

These tests compare the DNA of a person to that of another to define how many generations ago the two individuals shared their most recent common ancestor. These tests permit two people to determine with all the certainty that they are related to a specific time frame or the vice versa.

Biogeographical and ethnic origins. Additional DNA tests exist for defining biogeographical and ethnic origin.

Human migration. Genealogical DNA testing methods are used for a longer time to trace human migratory models and define, for instance, when and how the first human beings came to North America. One significant attempt that is presently happening in the genographic project. It aims at mapping historical human migration models by analyzing DNA patterns from more than 100,000 people all over five continents.

Genetic genealogy gives genealogists a model to check the historical record with data from genetic information. A decisive test match with another individual may discover living relatives, validate existing research, give locations for further genealogical research, confirm or deny suspected connections between families, help define ancestral homeland, prove or disprove theories regarding ancestry.

The crucial reasons that people do not want to be DNA tested are the price of these tests and problems with privacy issues. Nevertheless, the amount becomes more than just affordable. Also, confidentiality of one`s genetic markers can be restricted to families or groups. Such data results, where there are the data of people’s analyses, are often anonymous and are identified by a quantity which may be known to the person itself.

More than that, Y-DNA and mtDNA testing just trace one lineage, (in other words, one`s father`s father`s father`s, etc. lineage or one`s mother`s mother`s mother`s, etc. lineage). Several generations back, a person has 1024 ancestors and a Y-DNA or mtDNA test. It studies 10 of those 1024 ancestors.

To my mind, almost all human societies fit the cultural pattern that coincides with the genetic data. The article reflects the holistic, integrating approach to anthropology nature and respects a long tradition in anthropology and population studies.

3. Conclusion.
The given paper briefly analyzes mtDNA and Y chromosome DNA in genetic studies and genetic evidence regarding these two types of DNA.
Besides, it examines such essential aspects of genetic data as migration patterns or systems of marriage that affect these data.

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