The problem of national integration is one of the key problems to be solved by modern states. For a long time, the policy of national integration was based on the assumption that the political and cultural boundaries should coincide. In other words, it was assumed that the integrity of the civil and political society is possible only if it has cultural (and often ethnic) homogeneity.
However, during the last third of the XX century, liberal democracies manifested a gradual rethinking of the approach to national integration. Transnational migration flows lead to significant changes in the ethnic and demographic situation in the host societies. This, in turn, leads to seeking new ways to achieve civil and political integrity.
Canada can be considered a pioneer in the rejection of the traditional model of national integration. It was the first country officially proclaimed a pluralistic approach to the interpretation of the essence of the national integration, known as multiculturalism. Under this approach, the political unity of the nation and the ethnic and cultural heterogeneity of the population does not exclude each other. Moreover, cultural diversity is recognized as necessary condition for the nation integrity.
Canada’s experience is specific in a number of respects. This specificity is due to the fact that the formation of statehood in the Canadian case was not accompanied by the formation of a uniform legal and linguistic space. In addition, Canada is a country of immigration. The structure of the population is such that none of the ethnic and cultural groups can claim a monopoly status in the public space. Therefore, the integration of ethnic and cultural groups of immigrant buy cipro antibiotic origin occurs in the existing paradigm of cultural pluralism.
Despite the apparent uniqueness of the Canadian case, the problems faced by Canada, in many ways are typical for industrialized countries. First, it is a radical change in the ethnic and ethno-cultural composition of the population, which entails changing in social and cultural environment of the country. Second, it is the presence of immigrants from Muslim countries in the public space, which are often associated with political tensions and contradictions. Thirdly, it is a new request for membership in the political nation, formed in an environment of citizens of immigrant origin.
The experience of nation-building, gained in Canada over the past four decades, is quite controversial. However, his careful study is useful for other countries facing increasing ethnic and cultural diversity.
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