Essay on Partisan Politics

When there is only one political party system, it can be confused with the partisan system. On the other hand, if there is more than one party, this confusion no longer exists. We can consider that there always a public and a government component, common to the various parties, but the internal component is subdivided into as many subsystems as there are parties.

In the public component, the party partisans can be seen in relationship with each other as well as be linked to voters and partners. More clearly, the leaders of the various parties are connected to each other in the government component, in addition to be connected through the agents component. We also know that the partisans of other parties are relevant actors in the government component of a given party, insofar as they cannot be avoided to contact with, while this is not the case in the public component. We think about internal components of parties as distinctive for a partisan system to more than one party, but we see the functional relationships established between them, the guidelines of a party to be most often opposite to another party.

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Some partisan systems of monopolistic nature are almost coextensive with political system, seen as the set of control relations aimed at the regulation of the action in a community. This happens when partisan control all positions inside or outside of governmental authority in administrative, judicial, military, and police apparatus, but also all the associations that participate in any way in the regulation of a community.

In other communities, the partisan system is far from covering the political system: civil servants, judges, military, police have no partisan attachment or only very little controlled from outside by partisans. They have the same associations.

Among the rules, which are adopted in a political system, some are forcing specifically the action of parties. These are also identified in the upper part of the schema of Sorauf and can be divided into three broad categories.

First, there are constitutional rules that define the political regime, i.e., the distribution of the power or official controls between governmental bodies: parliament, executive, and courts. These rules also define its unitary, federal, or confederate political system. They mainly affect the government component of the parties.

There are also rules that apply to the parties themselves, i.e., their recognition in law, some of their activities (financing, expenses, and other election activities, etc.). These rules refer to most of the components of political and partisan systems, but they focus on the internal component.

Finally, there are the rules that define the electoral system, the electoral map, and the method of voting, affecting thereby the public component of the parties above all. These rules, like the previous ones, also constrain action and the state of the party and partisan system. It is just enough to remember about the differences between the consequences of the proportional and majority voting.

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