Artificial Intelligence Research Proposal

The dynamics of world ideas and integration of concepts into technology is one of the ideal current study areas in the human genre. One of the great ideas that the world is currently handling is the topic of Artificial Intelligence (AI). AI has taken the world into a different notch of facts finding, ideas and areas of exploration to enable human comfort. Most of the social genre at the inception period of AI did not understand the topic with time; however, AI becomes a component of human development and growth. Equally, in Saudi Arabia, it is of essence and manner to propose a research topic in AI. The term AI was first used in 1955 by the scientists John McCarthy in Dartmouth conference (Intelligence). Before this time, the AI was not based entirely on technology but instead on research and how to ease the human life through the creation of enabling of environment. The later scientist gained interest in AI further and led to the development of seven AI aspects or instead areas of artificial intelligence.

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Some of the aspects of AI include the programming of computers to use the universal language, abstraction, randomness, and creativity, among others. Looking at the mentioned aspects of AI it, therefore, means that almost all human dimensions are covered in the AI as a topic of study. Artificial intelligence is the branch of computer science that is geared towards making intelligent machines that perceives human ideas concerning life activities (Intelligence). Ideally, the AI concept deals with the reasoning of ideas, problem-solving approaches and broad approach to the social environment. Therefore, the topic AI is too general that one cannot solely exploit the whole topic of study. Therefore, this research proposes the question AI in line with the application of artificial intelligence in higher education. A brief survey of the proposed study would bring elaborate ideas on solving some of the eminent problems in the education system

Background of Study
The enrolment in the universities and colleges in various nations for a long time has been faced with inaccurate data hence leading misinformation. Recently in the US, AI has been applied in the education sector and marketing of education. As a matter of fact, from the year 2018 to 2022, the rate of using AI in the US is placed at a percentage of 47.7(Popenici, 2017). Equally, in Saudi Arabia, the higher education system is on the limelight to adopt the application of AI. The increasing number of the college-age cohort that keeps on increasing hence calls for the use of AI. The need to apply the AI in Saudi Arabia higher education system will address the educational challenges and planning issues within the country. Citing the estimated figures of about 4 million college students to be enrolled by the year 2025 (Ciolacu et al. 2018). It requires the need to have equipped data system, trends track record and allocation of the resources in addressing the challenges.

The enrollments problem in both the small and large size institutions can be solved by applying the AI concept of machine learning. The machine learning application gives the education system of higher education levels ability to learn automatically on matters about trends and changes. In addressing notions of higher learning, such as enrollment and planning challenges will be discussed adequately based on accurate data. For example, the shortcomings in the placing of domestic and international students, recruitment, and sponsorship in and outside the country will be placed on the radar. That is, the government through the institutions will generate automatic facts concerning the education system. Issues of courses offered out and inside the country to fill the market labour will be of great benefit.

Additionally, both the admission and retention rate of the students using AI will be improved. This because the data will be based on personal data and student’s information as opposed to projections of old information. As it is a fact well known that numbers do not lie; therefore, the provision of accurate data of the learning centres and education systems are stored.

A close look at Saudi Arabia higher educational problems and challenges, the adoption of AI application will improve the system and eliminate most of the shortfalls. For instance, in the year 2016, the estimated number of university student intake of Saudi Arabia was 1.7 million in which most reside in public universities (Education, 2019). As at now, most of the students have dropped out, and no information can verify reasons or exact number that has dropped out. With the AI application, the higher education systems will keep track of the expected graduates to enter job markets. Additionally, the Application of AI in higher education systems is not only applicable in the hypothetical projections but also the practical field. This explains why most developed nations have proper data management. The data systems are used to account for changes in courses and the labour market. Application of AI in higher education is one of the key concepts that should be adopted (Russell, 2016). This is because of two main reasons, and one is that the world is moving towards artificial intelligence age, and the young will be at the forefront in implementing it. Secondly, the AI application enables the education system to be at bay with facts and generate solutions which are contingent hence quick decision making.

Conceptual Framework
Basing the study topic of AI in education, the study will have a proper route map of a research study. In the intended research, the question is generated from the statement problem of the topic of study. The statement problem leads the investigation to the thesis statement of the study. That is, the application of AI in Saudi Arabia, higher education systems will improve service delivery in the education sector (Education, 2019). The research proposal claims that the application AI in more top education systems will improve service delivery to both the students and education systems.
AL significant benefit is that accurate data, and quick decision making is arrived at. In proving the idea, there is a need to have a broad literature review to shade light on the research topic. In a comprehensive analysis of literature books on the subject, it gives the research a concrete and valid reason to support the research proposed problem.

Independent Variable Dependent
Assuming all other concepts are held constant, the results of the applying AI will be as projected in the paradigm of the proposed conceptual framework. Isolating of the variables show the areas of research that will prove the purpose of the study (Goodfellow, 2016). Additionally, the variables in the intended research are to be adjusted as per the changes in the literature review. The research will entail scientific articles on the topic of study to build a proper research outcome; hence the items will give validated findings and facts concerning the research study.

Problem Statement
The AI as officially entered the higher education systems both hypothetically and practically. The application of AI is fast encroaching developed and developing nations. With the reality dawning in the 21st century, it, therefore, means that Saudi Arabia should not be left behind (Sutton, 2016). Ideally, the concept of AI is critical; some of the educational challenges facing the nation. For example, AI will address issues about the increasing number of college enrolments, the college admission process, shaping of higher education, among other problems (Mehmood, 2017). Therefore by sampling a few higher institutions of learning and piloting the AI application is likely to point the difference. As the world trends kick in, so should the education systems adopt the new methods to facilitate learning. AI should not only be used as a tool of change but rather be understood and applied in other modes of human growth. The study research is to enumerate how the problems in higher education systems can be handled using technology.

Study Purpose
The purpose of this study is to gain a clear role that AI will play in the improvement of higher education in both the local and national education setups. Nonetheless, utilising the AI application in the sector of higher education is deemed to yield certain benefits to the educations systems of Saudi Arabia (Programming). The study through validated outcome is to enumerate the idea of why applying AI in higher education is of the essence. This research proposal deduces and highlights specific areas where the application of AI has been marked with quality education (Larreamendy-Joerns, 2006). In looking at the roles played and answering particular research questions, the study purpose is unravelled.

Research Questions
The research questions for the study emanates from its hypothesis. That is, in the research topic above the idea of a research hypothesis is developed based on the research objective intended to be achieved (Sekaran, 2016). For instance, in this research topic, the main aim is to validate the role of AI in higher education. That is, to connect whether there is need to adopt the application AI in higher education or not. In developing the research hypothesis directly relate to the questions to be asked.

Research Questions
What are the mainstreams trends of AI in education?
Which areas or fields in education the AI is beneficial?
How does the AI impact on education Field?
Research hypothesis in the study
Null Hypothesis: There is a positive outcome in applying AI in the higher education systems
Alternate Hypothesis: The application of the AI in the higher education system does not affect education programs and results.

In the research topic above the variables forms the foundation role in ensuring the research results are clear. Variables justify the research hypothesis. In the research topic, AI is the independent variable and its application effects on the outcome expected (McGaghie, 2001). That is, applying AI has a different result compared to not using AI in the education system. The dependent variables include the quality of education in higher education levels, time factor, and education enrolments. Basing on the research findings on the proposed topic of study, peer-reviewed journals on the subject, there is the high expectation that AI application is useful in higher education (Spiro et al., 2017). The bond of contention in the research proposal is to enumerate that AI is an essential tool in improving the quality of education at higher education levels. AI application in education is to be adopted and embraced if the nation wants to keep up with educational and technological trends.

Research Methodology
The research design applied in any research study is always a determinant of the experimental outcome. In the research study topic above the design applied is the use of observation on the turn of events (Witten et al., 2016). Representation in research refers to the organised way of recording information in a given manner based on what is viewed on the people’s behaviour, the pattern in a given commodity (Zikmund, 2013). The research study will show how AI affects the quality of education in higher education levels. The relationship between AI applications among the institutions between given periods is taken.

From the data findings, age and of the youths being admitted and the institution’s resources are directly related. The relationship on the internet users can be analysed based on the age of the users. For instance, across the years, the period between 18-29, 30-49 the admissions, there is likely observation that tickets decrease with increase in age (Duda, 2012). Additionally, the use of a survey in a few sampled institutions is very useful in applying control. The schools are tested through the multi-stage sampling such in the local government regions and in urban settings. That is, the sampling few institutions and applying the AI will show if the results are as per the hypothesis. The few chosen higher institutions of learning data such as the total number of admissions and the drop out are taken into account. After attained data is recorded, the information is correlated before applying AI and after applying the AI. Using the correlational research design, the results will compare the results achieved and numbers retained and admitted before and after applying the AI in the sampled institutions.

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