Free Research Proposal on Political Science:
Nationalism in its modern understanding was conceived in XVIII age as a form of protest against the national oppression and lawlessness. Pre-condition of its origin was development of communication between the representatives of ethnic groups and forming their general national identity. National ideology is directed against the national oppression, colonial dependence and different forms of discrimination. It plays a progressive role: promote the consolidation and liberation of nation, creation of the independent states, development of national culture and national interests. However in the modern world if the state respects human rights, provides the right equality of all nations, nationalism looses its progressive, humane maintenance.
National ideology is formed on the basis of the real national people commonality, but it exaggerates the value of national distinctions and dignities of own nation. Using national consciousness, patriotic senses, linguistic and other ethnic cognation, it transforms them in hostile, aggressive position in relation to other nations. In the modern world its distribution is based on the methods of manipulation by the people consciousness, acute technologies of mass deception by MASS-MEDIA.
In my research proposal I’ll try to compare the development of two nationalist movements in Israel (Zionism) and India (Hindu movement). I choose them because their problems have been staying urgent for decades and they are relevant nowadays. Aspects, describing in my work: precondition of the origin, purposes and methods of goal achievement, results of their activity and modern positions of these movements.
Zionism (from the name of mountain Zion in Jerusalem) is the Jewish national movement the purpose of which is the Jewish people uniting on its historical motherland — Palestine. The purpose of Zionism was returning of the Jewry on its historical motherland from which they were banished as a result of the Roman (1-6 cent. A.D.) and then Arabic (7 cent. A.D.) invasion.
While Zionism is based in part upon religious tradition linking the Jewish people to the Land of Israel, where the concept of Jewish nationhood is thought to have first evolved somewhere between 1200 BCE and the late Second Temple era (i.e. up to 70 CE, the modern movement was mainly secular, beginning largely as a response by European Jewry to antisemitism across Europe. It constituted a branch of the broader phenomenon of modern nationalism. [Taylor A.R.,1971]
Creation of «national house» (later the state) where Jewries would repatriate from around the world — to move on permanent inhabitation on their historical motherland was necessary. Hebrew, the ancient language of Jewries was adopted as the official language of Israel. The actions directed on the achievement of this purpose have started the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, which took away thousands human lives.
The first ideologists of Zionism in general did not consider the Arabic question as an important. In 1916 Khaim Veytsman concluded a treaty with sheikh Feysal about the world and neighborliness, leader of Arabic movement. On 14 May, of 1948 it was proclaimed in Declaration of Israel independence. During the Second World War situation became worse because of some Arabic leaders supported Hitler and his attempts to annihilate the European Jews (For example, leader of the «Palestinian Arabs» Amin al-Khuseyni visited Hitler and in public thanked him as an ally of Arabs for a «fight against world Jews»).
During the War for Independence the mutual attacks of sides were fixed. As a result the Arabic population leaved the territory of present Israel — some sources affirmed that it was an ethnic cleaning; Palestinians name it «Nakba» («catastrophe» — Arabic, like the Holocaust). In the night from the 9th to 10th of April 1948 Zionist fighters’ detachments of secrecy organizations «Etsel» and «Lekhi» attacked the Palestinian village Deyr-Yassin and killed its peaceful habitants: there are from 100 to 250 persons according to different sources.
Anyway, after Independence War Arabs living in Israel got all civil laws, and Arabs who remained on the western bank of the river of Jordan under control Jordan got citizenship of this country. Presently they have indefinite legal status. For today most Zionism ideologists hope on the establishment the peaceful relationships with Arabs living in Israel, but part of Zionism ideologists consider the only way to the world is transferring the Arabs in the Arabic countries. At the same time a right of the Palestinian refugees for returning on territory of Israel is denied.
Some Zionists considers that the problem of refugees must be decided by their absorption in the Arabic countries — also as Jewry-refugees from the Arabic countries were absorbed in Israel. Previous president of Israel Moshe Katsav declared: “Palestinians must break off to feed illusions regarding „rights for returning”.
Meantime the Arabic countries consider that for a successful fight against international terrorism it is necessary to settle the Israel-Palestinian conflict, which in their opinion is one of the main reasons of terrorism. Presently violence prevails in the Israel-Palestinian relations, and there are no signs that a peaceful process will recommence in the near future. Recent efforts directed on proceeding in peaceful negotiations didn’t have any results. A mutual mistrust and hostility intensified. Every side find guilty the other side in the failure of these attempts and new coil of violence, lasting more than year and taking away lives more than thousand persons.
In opinion of the Israel political correspondent Shlomo Aviner, the most fundamental problem is that Israel and Palestinians imagine the future quite variously: «We deal with the collision of two national motions. And it is attended not only with emotions but also with that these people think about how they identify themselves. And when these two national ideas conflict on the same territory, there is insoluble contradiction. Just such situation is in Palestine, Israel, Kashmir, and Kosovo…»
Palestinians consider that the United States must strengthen pressure on Israel and obtain realization of the already attained agreements, which foresaw the conclusion of troops from the Western bank and Gaza Strip, liquidation of the Jewish settlements and right for Palestinians on self-determination. Meantime Israel, fearing for its safety, insists on stopping of violence acts from Palestinians as a condition precedent of proceeding in peaceful negotiations.
Palestinians argue against the attempts of Osama bin Laden to stop the Palestinian-Israel conflict to the appeal to the Moslems to go in to the sacred war with the West. However, some leaders of the Arabic countries, in particular president of Egypt Khosni Mubarak, assert that headed the United States a campaign against terrorism can not be dissociated from solution of the Israel-Palestinian conflict.
Hindu nationalism didn’t have such radical expectancies and their ideas didn’t disseminate on the other countries and nations. It originated from the period of fight for India independence and presently blooms up. The eldest and most influential organization of the Hindu nationalism is “The Union of Voluntary Nation Acolytes”. Today it disposes of 40 branches, registered as independent parties and organizations. “Party of the Indian people” exudes among them. During 1998–2004 it headed the coalition government of India, and its leader Atal Bikhari Vadzhpai was a prime-minister.
The founder of “The Union of Voluntary Nation Acolytes” was Keshav Baliram Khedgevar (1889–1940). In young days he joined to the Bengali revolutionaries, and then supported Mahatma Gandi. Khedgevar conceived this organization as fraternity of coreligionists. His purpose was defense of community, dharma (a moral, religious debt in Hinduism) and culture of Hindus, their force consisted in discipline and good organization.
The primary cell of organization was shakkha. It consisted of 50–100 soldiers, acolytes-volunteers. They are divided by four age groups: from 7 to 10 years, from 10 to 14, from 14 to 28 and from 28 years and upward. Two third of volunteers are young people from 18 to 25 years. They easily absorb new ideas and gladly submit discipline. The day of soldiers begins in 6.30 in the morning. At first they march, do physical exercises, learn the technique using the hand-to-hand fight a cold steel; than conversations about bases of Hinduism, gods and heroes and certainly about the «enemies» of Hindu community – Moslems, Christians and communists.
In contrast to Zionists the Hindu nationalists didn’t act in an aggressive way. They often take part in beneficent activity and help the victims of natural disasters. They are gladly accepted on military service. Physically strong, disciplined and devoted a debt, they become the best officers of the Indian army. From the beginning its activity RSS took an important part in an anti-colonial fight.
But there were fights and problems with existing legislation. In December, 1929 “The Union of Voluntary Nation Acolytes” supported a course on «Purna svaradzh» – complete sovereignty of India. In spring of 1930 while the supporters of Makhatma Gandi evaporated salt from salt water, Khedgevar and 10 thousands of his brothers-in-arms began grass mowing in jungles. These actions were direct violation of salt monopoly and forest legislation of Britannic India. As a result all of participants were behind bars. They were set free only in February of the next year.
In 1947 Britannic India got long-awaited independence and was divided by dominions – Indian Union and Pakistan. Its division was accompanied by the raging of violence and bloody collisions, taking away lives of more than million people. In these dramatic days “the Union” came forward under the slogan of “Akkhand Bkharat!” (“Indivisible India!”) and concentrated on a help for numerous refugees from Pakistan. Thousands of its soldiers built temporal camps for refugees, provided them food and medicines, treated injured.
During war with China in 1962 “The Union” provided the moral help to the armies and fully supported the steps of the government directed on the nation defense. Indian-Pakistani war began in 1965. Under the enemy’s fire “The Union” soldiers evacuated a peaceful population from boundary districts, brought food, medicines, and other loads. They guarded the objects of the economic setting, patrolled the streets of night cities, helped policemen, and gratis gave the blood for injured.
“The Union of Voluntary Nation Acolytes” was under a ban in India for three times.
On the elections in 1996 «Indian national congress» failed. BDP got 23.5% voices of electors and 161 places in parliament. According to the results of elections in 1998 “The Union” formed the coalition government. It was led by Atal Bikhari Vadzhpai. Period of its rule was marked by its victory on pre-term elections in 1999, the steady rates of the economy growth, creation of three new states in India, increase of workplaces number and combating of poverty, conducting in 1998 series of nuclear tests and strengthening of defensive capacity and safety of the country. In this connection the defeat of “The Union” on the elections in April-May of 2004 can be considered as a miscalculation of guidance of party.
Inspired success on elections, political strategists of congress brought down furious attacks on “The Union”. They were accused in injury of bases of India, attempts to political strategist the Constitution, intimidation of religious minorities, organizations of Hindu-Moslem pogroms in Gudzharat, changing of Indian history from Hindu nationalism position. Undoubtedly, with approaching of new general election fight between political alliances will be inevitably become strained. The end of this fight will show, whether BDP will be succeeded to return the trust of electors, lost in 2004.
As we can see both nationalist movement have the similar purposes – the prosperity of their nations, but the ways of these goal attainment were quite different. The Zionists decided to act more aggressive and emphatically, they enlisted the support of such powerful country as the USA and the Palestinians have no choice. But they put up resistance… As a result thousands people die and nobody knows when this bloodshed will stop.
In some sources Zionism is considered as national liberation movement of the Jewish people in the context of European national liberation motions of XIX century. Some critics consider it as a form of racism.
The activity of “The Union of Voluntary Nation Acolytes” also had some bloody pages in its history. I think their actions were more warrantable. They thought not only about the power but the peaceful people, who, essentially, is the Nation.
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