Traditionally, the threat of natural disaster is one of the major threats that people faced in their everyday life. In fact, the threat of different natural disaster may vary depending on the region. In this respect, it is possible to estimate that the region where Indiana University Blommington is situated is exposed to a variety of threats of different natural disasters, among which the threat of tornado may be particularly dangerous. It should be pointed out that, in spite of the modern technological achievements and progress of science, it is still quite difficult to forecast precisely the development of tornado and its potential disastrous effect in a particular case, especially nowadays when natural disasters, especially tornado become more and more unpredictable.
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On the other hand, it is obvious that nowadays it is possible to minimize negative impact of tornado on the facilities and people that are living and working in the area of the IUB. However, in order to prevent the threat of the natural disaster, such as tornado, it is necessary to come prepared to face tornado that means that IUB should have a well-developed system of natural disaster emergency management which could coordinate actions of all people and units in case of such a disaster as tornado. Practically, this means that IUB should have a reliable system of forecasting the threat of tornado, plan of actions and effective management system which could assist people to minimize negative impacts of tornado in case the disaster strike. Naturally, the effective emergency management system should be based not only technological and moral preparedness of people but also on the effective risk assessment management in order to help emergency services and people affected by the disaster to react in time and effectively on tornado or even on the threat of tornado.
The threat of tornado
Speaking about the threat of tornado, it is necessary to underline that the threat of this natural disaster is not just purely hypothetical for IUB, but, in actuality, it is a real threat that can strike the area and cause significant damages if people are unprepared or simply ignorant of the threat of tornado in the area. In fact, tornado is a real threat that can take many live of local people if they do not pay enough attention to this problem. In this respect, it is possible to remind about the terrible and disastrous tornado that stricken Indiana on April3, 1974, when a series of tornadoes moved northeastward through the state of Indiana (http://www.april31974.com/indiana_tornado_data.htm) or more recently, just few days ago, tornado killed 22 people in Indiana (http://www.cnn.com/2005/WEATHER/11/06/indiana.tornadoes/index.html). These data prove the fact that the area of IUB is susceptible to the strikes of tornado. Consequently, it is really important to develop an effective risk assessment and emergency management system in order to prevent the further casualties in case of the disaster.
IUB vulnerability factors
Obviously, if people are unaware of the risk of tornado or do not properly understand what the impact of tornado may be, they will naturally be exposed to the great danger because they may ignore even the elementary principles of their personal security in case of the disaster. This means that, since the threat of tornado is very significant, the research of this problem as well as the development of more effective risk assessment and emergency management are of a paramount importance to minimize the destructive effects and casualties among the local population.
It is particularly important for IUB because many people here arrive to the area form other states and, therefore, they have quite a vague idea what tornado actually is. This is why they need to be properly informed and aware of the essence of tornado and its major threats. For instance, they need to know at least basic information about tornado in order to adequately assess the threat to their health, such as the fact that tornado is the most violent nature’s storm that appears as a rotating, funnel-shaped cloud that extends from a thunderstorm to the ground with the whirling winds that can reach 300 miles per hour and its damage path can exceed 50 miles (http://www.fema.gov/hazard/tornado/index.shtm).
In such a way, the lack of information or simple ignorance of people living, working or studying in the IUB area may be one of the major risk factors that may lead to high level of victims in case of the disaster. At the same time, it is necessary to realize that IUB is situated in the area where the risk of tornado is quite high. Consequently, the geographical position of IUB makes it vulnerable to the threat of tornado.
Furthermore, the development of the local facilities may be also another potential risk factors because in the situation when the community growth, new buildings are constructed it is really important that new constructions meet the basic demands concerning safety and resistibility to tornado strikes. As the matter of fact, insufficient safety of buildings may be a serious threat to the safety of people and, in addition, it may increase substantially the costs of the reconstruction of the area in the result of the disaster.
Risk assessment of the threat of tornado
In such a situation, it is extremely important that people, local infrastructure and emergency services were prepare to tornado and overcoming its negative consequences. In this respect, it should be said that the information of people about the essence and possible effects of tornado and improvement of the local infrastructure and buildings is only a partial solution of the problem of minimizing negative effects of tornado. In actuality, it is extremely important to adequately assess the threat and risk of tornado in order to make people more prepared for the disaster.
What is meant here is the fact that it is necessary to forecast the development of tornado and the risk of its coming through the IUB area. In this respect, meteorological services should play particularly significant role but their major function is forecasting, while to forecast a disaster does not mean to prevent or minimize its negative effects. In order to fulfill this major goal of risk assessment and emergency management, it is important to inform effectively all people about the upcoming disaster. In this respect, it is necessary to develop the local system of communication that can be used specifically for informing about tornado, for instance, it can be a special local radio transmission which could be transmitted throughout the area, or else it is possible to use more advanced telecommunication services and inform people about disaster through their mobiles.
Another important stage is the training of people. This means that people should know how to act in case of tornado. This is why it is possible to organize special courses to inform and train people to basic threats and ways of their prevention in case of tornado. In such a way, it will be possible to prepare people theoretically and practically to the disaster, decreasing their fear in face of the disaster and, therefore, minimizing panic during and after tornado.
Thus, in conclusion, it is possible to say that the threat of tornado in the IUB area is very significant and this is why the local population should be aware of this threat and informed about the essence and effects of tornado, while through training of local people it is possible to minimize the threat to their health and decrease casualties in case of the disaster.
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