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Research Paper on Ice Hockey

Ice Hockey is a team game, consisting in the confrontation between the two teams on skates, which, passing the puck with the sticks are aimed to get it in the other team’s net, achieving the highest score and hinder the other team make the same thing.

The history of ice hockey is one of the most disputed among all sports. Traditionally, the ice hockey birthplace is considered Montreal (Canada) (although more recent studies point to the superiority of Windsor, Nova Scotia or Kingston, Ontario). However, already some Dutch paintings of the 16th century, depicts a lot of people playing a game on iced channel, which looked similar to the hockey. However, despite this, Canada is still the official birthplace of the modern ice hockey.

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In 1763, when the United Kingdom recaptured France Canada, British soldiers brought with them ice hockey to their motherland. Since Canadian winters are very harsh and long, this area always welcomed winter sports. Attaching cheese cutters to their boots, Anglo-and French-speaking Canadians played the game on frozen rivers, lakes, and other water bodies. In Nova Scotia and Virginia there are ancient paintings, depicting people playing hockey.

March 3, 1875 in Montreal at the Victoria skating rink was the first hockey game, which was recorded in the Montreal newspaper “Montreal Gazette.” Each team consisted of nine people. They played with wooden puck (shinny), and protective equipment borrowed from baseball. The net was used for the first time then.

In 1877, several Mcgill University of Montreal students invented the first seven ice hockey rules. In 1879, the first rubber puck was used. After a while, the game became so popular that in 1883, it was presented at the annual Montreal Winter Carnival. In 1885, in Montreal, the Amateur Hockey Association was founded.

The rules of the game have been enhanced, streamlined, and printed in 1886. According to them, the number of players was reduced from nine to seven. The entire match, the team played without changing its players, and by the end of the match, the athletes literally were crawling across the ice due to fatigue, as substitution was permitted only  to  the player who was injured (only in the final period and only with the consent of the opponent). In the same year, the first international meeting was held between Canadian and English teams.

The first professional hockey team was established in Canada in the year 1904. In the same year, hockey players have switched to a new system of games — six on six. A standard size for the playground 56 × 26 m was set, which has since changed little. Four seasons later, there was a complete separation between professionals and amateurs.

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