Moral absolutism includes absolute-heteronomous, autonomous, phenomenological, intuitive theories. Its essence consists in the proclamation of morality as unconditional and the most important foundations of human activity, and the desire to be moral – as the primary semantic cohesion of the motive. This position was expressed by Socrates, Kant, has found expression in stoicism, Christian ethics. Utilitarianism is the opposite position, considering the morals only as a means to achieve happiness. In absolutism, happiness lies in the virtues, while utilitarianism considers the virtue only a way to happiness. These are, of course, extreme versions of both approaches. In modern ethics these extremes are blurred, intermingled, having common positions in some parts. However, the dilemma remains.
At absolute approach to morality, there are arguments that some moral principles cannot be alternated under any circumstances. Their origin may be different. In absolute-heteronomous theories, morality is often derived directly from the divine will, and the priority of moral motive is based on the idea of a fair reward, that God judges a person primarily for its moral case. Other concepts of Absolute is regarded as something having a constant impact on the progress of developing processes in imperfect reality, it creates such human nature that originally was given some features of absolute morality, such as the sense of shame, and aspiration toward moral perfection, or sadness and sorrow, considering these qualities evidence of dependence of human existence from the Absolute. Absolute-intuitive concepts come from the ideas of moral goodness or debt priority above all other pragmatic reasons for being.
The absolutist autonomous concepts attempt to define the priority of moral motive from ability of the human mind, from the very thinking form in which the ultimate synthesis is presented as evidence of the practical value of the merger, the moral connection between people. Autonomous approach to morality was first implemented by Kant. His ideas and approach were the basis for a number of underlying trends in the development of modern ethics. In particular, it was his methodology that was used as the foundation for a value consciousness in its absolutist form with Piping connected practical approaches to the theory of Justice (Rawls) and ethical discourse, one of the major ethical theories of modernity. Even modern utilitarian theory (in principle opposite to those of absolutism) use some Kantian techniques, in particular the universality of rule to test the hypothetical imperatives in their universal acceptance.
As you know, one of the Kant’s central ideas was that the learning process is not a simple description of the object of cognition, even if the description considers not only its external identification, but also its internal relations. Unlike Aristotle, Kant did not consider that the entity is simply inferred from the phenomena.
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