Niels Hendrik David Bohr (October 7, 1885, Copenhagen – November 18, 1962, ibid), a Danish scientist, one of the founders of modern physics. He also is the author of the seminal works on quantum mechanics, the theory of the atom, atomic nucleus, and nuclear reactions.
To write a good research paper on the topic you need to know that Niels Bohr was born in a family of Christian Bohr, Professor of Physiology, University of Copenhagen, and Ellen Bohr, came from a wealthy and influential Jewish family. Niels parents and his younger, beloved brother Harald (a future great mathematician) have managed to make sons childhood happy and meaningful. The beneficial influence of the family, in particular – the mother, played a decisive role in shaping their spiritual qualities.
Niels received his primary education in Gammelholm Grammar School, from which he graduated in 1903. During his school years he was an avid soccer player; later he became fond of skiing and sailing. Twenty-three years he graduated from the University of Copenhagen, where he gained a reputation as an unusually gifted physics researcher. His thesis project on the definition of the surface tension of water by vibrations of the water jet was awarded the Gold Medal of the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences. In 1908-11, Bohr continued to work at the university, where he completed a number of major studies, in particular on the classical electron theory of metals that formed the basis of his doctoral dissertation.
Three years after graduation, Bohr came to work in England. After a year at Cambridge with JJ Thomson, Bohr moved to Manchester to Rutherford, whose lab at the time occupied a leading position. Here, by the time of Bohr were experiments that led to Rutherford’s planetary model of the atom. More precisely, the model was still in its infancy.
Experiments on the passage of alpha particles through leaflets foil led Rutherford to the conclusion that in the center of the atom there is a small charged nucleus, which holds almost the entire mass of the atom and around the nucleus is much lighter electrons are located. Since the atom as a whole is electrically neutral, the total charge of all the electrons must be modulo equal to the charge of the nucleus, but differ from it in sign. The conclusion that the charge of the nucleus must be a multiple of the electron charge was important, but there were still many uncertainties. Thus, there were found “isotopes” – a substance with the same chemical properties, but with a different atomic weight.
Bohr’s first important achievement in Rutherford’s laboratory was that he realized that the chemical properties are determined by the number of electrons in the atom, and hence the nuclear charge, and not its mass, and this explains the existence of isotopes.
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