Whales research paper:
Whales (Latin name Cetacea) belong to the order of mammals, these animals are completely adapted to life under water. Artiodactyls and cetaceans are often referred to non-systematic cetartiodactylan group. Whales are the largest animals of all beings living on the Earth.
The word “whale” as well as the scientific name “cetus” come from the Greek ketos which, means sea monster.
Cetaceans, in particular whales, have the largest size among animals – blue kit has a body length of 25 m (the largest species reach 33 m ), and weight about 90-120 tons. The smallest cetaceans are tailed dolphin and Hector dolphin, they refer to old colorful dolphins (Cephalorhynchys): the length of their body does not exceed 120 cm, and weight – 45 kg.
To date, science knows three suborder of cetaceans, they combined 127 extinct genera and 38 living : ancient whales (arheotsety), baleen whales (mistakotsety) and toothed whales (odonotsety). Two living suborders differ greatly in their appearance and internal structure, as well as their biology. Toothless whales instead of teeth have a range of hanging from the maxilla horny plates, which are called “whalebone,” through which they filter marine plankton from the water.
Order Cetacea consists of highly specialized mammals that have adapted to constant living in the water. Cetaceans appearance is strongly reminiscent of fish, but their internal construction is fundamentally different. Whales are warm-blooded, they have lungs, and a small hair coat. Their fetus develops in utero as in animals, and calves are fed by milk, there are many other features to integrate them with other mammals.
The cetaceans have streamlined body shape (torpedo or teardrop shape), and smooth skin without hair. Since whales often swim in the cold waters that they have very thick fat layer, it protects whales from hypothermia. For many years, the evolution of the forelimbs transformed into flippers and tail completely atrophied. At the tail end, there is a large horizontal fin.
Such a streamlined body allows them to swim fast due to the small water resistance. The absence of hair coat and ears also contribute to it. The sin of cetaceans has a great elasticity and water resistance that reduces friction during fast swimming. The head is usually massive with sharpened or extended “beak” (rostrum). There is virtually no visible cervical intercept; the head is immediately connected to the body, which gradually narrows in the caudal peduncle. The forelimbs evolved into flat and rigid pectoral fins (flippers), which serve mostly as depth rudders, as well as provide the turns and braking.
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