( Jap.?, buoys Jap. ??) was a secular feudal in feudal Japan, ranging from large sovereign princes (daimyo) and ending with small nobles, in the narrow and the most commonly used sense a military-feudal class of petty nobles. Although the word “samurai” and “bushi” is very close by meaning, but still “boo” (warrior ) is a broader concept, and it does not always apply to the samurai. An analogy is often drawn between the samurai and European medieval chivalry, but such a comparison is largely inaccurate.
The very word “samurai” is derived from the verb saberu, literally meaning “to serve, to maintain,” i.e., Samurai is serviceman. Samurai was not only soldier or a knight. They were bodyguards and at the same time servants of their overlord, or daimyo, in their daily lives.
Education in the family and teachers were two main factors, the foundation for the education of the youth of the samurai class, who form the ideal warrior, based on mythical tales, Buddhist indifference to death, fear, and pain, the cult of Confucian filial piety and purely Japanese tradition – fidelity to the lord. Family and mentor primarily cared about a teenage becoming a character full of bravery and courage, endurance and patience. Future Samurais should grow fearless and bold, in other words, develop in them the qualities that were considered among the most important virtues of the samurai, in which a warrior could neglect their own lives for the sake of the life of another.
Ninja (Jap.?? – hiding, one who hides <?? “Shinobu” – to be obscure, to hide) other name was sinobi (??briefly <??? ? “shinobi- no mono”) meaning a scout saboteur, spy, killer in medieval Japan.
According to legend, the ninja were brave, trained people who have passed from childhood training in a very complex art of ninjutsu, ad who were very skilled. Ninja had to primarily get the necessary information, as well as to be great warrior, who could use any object as a deadly weapon and could defend himself against any weapon (including bare hands). He should knew how to appear suddenly and quietly hiding, and to be skillful in local medicine, herbalism, and acupuncture. Ninja could stay for a long time under water, breathing through a straw, climbing rocks, target areas, to train the ear, visual memory, see better in the dark, to be nosy, etc.
Initiation was carried out as in samurai families in 15 years. Then the boys and girls started to the study Zen Buddhism and Taoism. There is speculation that its origins are linked with yamabushi ninja.
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