Research Papers

Using Technology in the Classroom Research Paper

Technology has affected various spheres of life. The technology is set to continue influencing how human beings carry out their activities. The importance of technology and technological products in human life cannot be underestimated. Today, technology plays a critical role in complex and crucial operations such as education. Within the education sectors, technology has influenced the mode of learning and contributed to the emergence of new methods of learning. Technology seeks to make learning more interactive while helping resolve challenges that make learning difficult. Many technology companies have emerged with a focus on education. The companies are helping develop both hardware and software products that aid in learning. Over the years, the number of technology companies has been expanding. Computer technology continues to improve modes of learning across the world; therefore, it cannot be avoided. The need to study the effects of technology in learning has been attributed to the need to explore ways of integrating technology better in learning institutions to make education more interactive and able to fulfill its objectives. Technology has been hailed for providing interactive audio and visual press that has made the rendering of information to high school easier. Various tools make learning interactive and captivating. This paper seeks to explore how technology has revolutionized learning. The article will emphasize on how iPad have influenced education sectors and how it promotes learning. The paper examines how the iPad has managed to develop specific features that make it a suitable tool for learning.

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Internet of things has influenced all spheres of life including education. Internet technology is set to continue changing as more studies and resources are allocated to initiatives that seek to identify how technology can be incorporated into various issues of life. Online technology has emerged as the best tool for communication. Through online technology, different people some miles apart can share information and relate the ease. Before the advent of internet technology, the virtual discussion was not practical. Today, with the development of technology and technological equipment people can share information that contributes to learning with much ease. Learning entails communication where one informed party imparts knowledge to another. IPads are helping achieve learning by providing a platform where information can be shared. The Internet has enabled the creation of search engines where people can supply and retrieve learning information with ease. The information contained in the search engines is needed for learning processes. Various educational sites and directories have been developed where people can access information with ease. The information contributes to an in-depth understanding of issues. The Internet has been hailed for helping high school students gain better expertise. This study seeks to examine how the iPad has been critical in learning. High school, schools has been ascertained to be very dynamic each with unique learning abilities. Education should consider all their needs and help each one of them acquire as much knowledge as possible. Hardcopy books have been in use for many years. With the changing world, it has become difficult to obtain enough paper for use in producing books for use by the increasing populations. Education stakeholders have pondered on ways of enabling high school children to access learning materials with ease without influencing the environment negatively. Technology has enabled the creation of intangible books that allow students to share information with ease.

This study is related to e-learning or distance learning, but considers what takes place within a classroom. The paper will explore a learning setup where teachers and pupil meet with classes and not in cases where they are distant apart. The study will consider a hybrid set up where children could have books, but have access to tablets within the same classroom and use them for various learning activities. The study explores how tablets are changing the learning process by getting rid of textbooks. It examines how tablets are helping teachers’ offers lectures with much ease just by clicking. The study will explore the entire learning process and how tablets are being used to examine students. Application of the tools of technology is extensive. With time, more developments are coming up which allow different products of technology to be used in different situations. The study will seek to explore how iPad can be used as powerful creative tools that will lead to the learning process being more interactive and creative hence bring out the best out of students. The study will also consider how the numerous learning apps that high school students are exposed when using iPad tablets contribute to their learning process. More and more learning apps are created by day. The app exposes high school students to endless learning opportunities. This study seeks to understand how endless learning opportunities have benefited students and enabled teachers to perform their duties better. The primary research topic of this study is the effectiveness of iPad education. IPad a product of development in technology is increasingly being used for learning purposes. The study seeks to understand how it will be useful in addressing emerging educational needs.

Literature Reviews
Different tools and technologies have been at the forefront of education for many years. Devices used within a classroom have changed from crude methods that were bulky and crude to simple tools with the ability to perform some functions to the current state where small but complex devices named tablets are in use (Nooriafshar, 2011). Classroom technology had evolved from the days when carvings figures on rock walls were used to aid teaching. Advancement in technology has enabled the creation of tablets of different models the common one being iPads. IPads are portable technological devices. The device has been instrumental in pushing education to new levels, allowing high school students to acquire knowledge with ease and use the information to come up with creative ideas that have transformed the world. Technology even in its earliest form allowed teachers and learners to be flexible and incorporate various strategies in the process of learning (Wang, Teng, & Chen, 2015). Over the years, scientists and scholars have explored better ways of making teacher-student interaction more appealing and easier. Different tools have been invested in the process. IPads are among modern gadgets to be spent that have changed the learning process. Use of various tools in learning has sought to make learning a more collaborative process and offer new opportunities that will enhance the learning process. Use of different devices in the learning process has also tried to spur creativity among learners by providing means knowledge acquired in class can be applied in real life situations (Khaddage & Zeidan, 2012). Below is a comprehensive analysis of different technological tools that have been used within a classroom for teaching and learning from the earliest crude tools to the modern day iPads.

In the 1800s, chalk boards and slide rules were the most advanced tools of technology used in class. James Pillans a high school and college teacher from Edinburgh, Scotland is credited with inventing the chalkboard in the 1800s (Managuerra & Petecz, 2011). At the time of invention, the chalkboard was very popular and significantly solved many problems that affected teacher-student interactions. Before the development of the chalkboard, it was harder for teachers to deliver content to students. While using the chalkboards, later forms were painted green. The color was conspicuous; hence; learners could with ease see what the teacher was writing. The technology is considered a kind of primitive broadcast technology that has contributed to the current integration of audiovisual devices in the learning. Chalkboards allowed teachers to present knowledge to many students as opposed to one student at a time (Clark, Austin, & Craike, 2015). All students in a classroom could see the blackboard hence grasp what the teacher was talking about. After being in use for several years, chalkboards become a less active form of teaching necessitating the development of smaller versions of chalkboards called slates. Slates were created from porcelain or painted wood. Slates were much easier to use than chalkboards. Teachers could easily demonstrate various concepts on chalkboards thus enabling the learner to gain comprehensive information with much ease. Before the invention of the chalkboard and the slate, teachers found it hard to teach and explain complex concepts to the student (Lin & Nzai, 2014). Learning was therefore very cumbersome and did not allow many people to gain as much knowledge as expected. The chalkboard therefore at the time of invention solved a significant problem that had affected teacher-student interaction.

English ministers Edmund Gunther and William Oughtred are credited with the invention of the siding rule another critical invention that assisted classroom teaching is done in a better way (Lin & Nzai, 2014). Despite being a simple device, the slide rule had different components, which can be equated to the modern computer or iPads that are widespread in many classrooms today. The three parts include the base, free center and the two transparent faces synonymous to a cursor in modern day iPad. To the far left and right of the rule are marked with bars and logarithmic scales. The sliding rules have been in operation from the 1800s to the 1970s, where they were widely used in teaching sciences such as mathematics, physics and other technical subjects that required drawing and demonstration of concepts (Psiropoulos et al., 2016). The high school student found the chalkboard and the slide rule very essential in learning of trigonometric concepts, geometry and resolve many mathematical problems as they provided a mean teacher could explain to students and even incorporate visual objects in the teaching process. The inventions despite being simpler influenced later learning practices where different tools were integrated into learning to make teacher-student interaction more effective (Psiropoulos, et al., 2016). The inventions made scholars start exploring other devices that could enrich the learning process. Education historians assert that the invention of the chalkboard and the sliding rule helped improve students’ performance in mathematics and other technical subjects (Khaddage & Zeidan, 2012). Up to date, some high schools still use chalkboards and sliding rules in the teaching of mathematics and other technical subjects. Without the invention of the chalkboard and the sliding rule, maybe a current improvement in the classroom could not have been attained.

In the early 1900s, pencil, paper and film projectors become part of classroom items, adding onto the chalkboard and the sliding rule (Flower, 2014). Pencil and paper substituted slates. The new equipment allowed students to write with ease, correct mistakes done whiling writing and even save their work for future reference. The technologies received global recognition and were embraced by various civilizations for use within their classrooms. The National Association of Teachers in the United Kingdom in 1907 even declared that pen and ink would never take the place of a pencil in the school. There are no clear records as to who invented the pencil. However, in the 16th century, Conrad Gesner is claimed to have described a pen as an instrument used for writing and could be used in classrooms to aid the learning process (Clark, Austin, & Craike, 2015). Learning is an interactive process where students should be allowed to express their ideas and even if they make mistakes be provided means to correct the errors. Use of ink did not let high school students express themselves fully for fear of making mistakes that could be erased with ease. The invention of the pencil allowed students to communicate their creative power better. If they made mistakes, they could wipe the mistakes, continue, and in the process gain more knowledge. The pencil improved teacher-student interaction by allowing the erasure of mistakes if made in the course of learning (Hargis, Cavanaugh, Kamali, & Soto, 2014). Pencils allowed students to take notes, for future reference. Storage of information is very critical as students can refer to when in need. Learners are not able to grasp everything in one seating. Therefore, the development of pencil and paper that allowed students to store information and retrieve it when in need was very critical in aiding the learning process. Pencil and paper influenced the adoption of tools and devices that allowed easy storage of information. The information was retrieved at the point of need thus promoting classroom needs (McCombs & Liu, 2011). Education stakeholders later understood the benefits of having tools that can store information with ease. Much effort was then out in the development of devices that allowed learners to write and edit their work with ease and even store information for future reference.

In the late 1800s, the use of magic lanterns by high school teachers was widespread (Vandermeer, Beamish, Milford, & Lang, 2015). Use of the lights was adopted to make learning more natural. Candles and oil lamps fueled the lanterns while the teacher made presentations. Use of the lanterns was very cumbersome. At the time they were in operations, the magic lanterns could run out of fuel inconveniencing learners and teachers. A shortcoming of the lights made scientists consider the development of better lighting systems for use within the classroom, which lead to the development of the filmstrip projectors. Filmstrip projectors were invented around 1925 and became operational in class several years later (Khaddage & Zeidan, 2012). Filmstrip projectors could display nearly fifty images on a screen or wall for students to see while learning. They provided superior content presentation features compared to chalk board and sliding ruler and pencil and paper (Flower, 2014). The invention significantly improved teacher-student interaction, allowing teachers to explain various concepts to students with ease. Filmstrip projectors allowed students to listen to accompanying cassette or recorded audiovisuals. The invention is considered a precursor to the modern use of tablets, which are electronic devices with the ability to present learning material in an audiovisual format to students.

In the 1940s, mimeograph machines and ballpoint pens were the conventional devices used in classrooms (Hargis, Cavanaugh, Kamali, & Soto, 2014). The technology exposed high students to worksheets, pre-written work and take home papers. Before the mimeograph, it was hard for students to have access to prewritten work and sheets. Students were forced to take notes manually. Thomas Edison invented the mimeograph for commercial use, but eventually, the technology found itself in the classroom aiding students` access learning materials (Nooriafshar, 2011). The mimeographs have rotating cylinders that forced ink through typed stencils onto sheets of paper. Mimeograph did not produce perfect work compared to modern day photocopiers. They delivered dump papers that were smelly.

After the mimeograph, Laszlo Biro in 1938 invented the ballpoint pens though they could not be refilled. The ballpoints made writing easier than before. Ballpoint pens were not as embraced as how other previous innovations had been adopted (McCombs & Liu, 2011). A report by the Federal Teachers in 1950 indicated that the ballpoint could ruin the education of high school students since once they are used, they were discarded making them not the right tool for use within a classroom. Shortcomings of the ballpoint further compelled the researcher to develop better tools for use within a school that could make learning more comfortable and better.

In the 1950, schools in Europe begun instructional television. Philo Farnworth developed electronic technology, and many people thought it was aimed at taking over the role of teachers, which was not the case. Instructional television was created to enhance teachers’ ability to explain certain concepts and allow teachers to relate with students better (McCombs & Liu, 2011). At the time of invention, instructional television was of three-types, names broadcast programming, classroom-specific programming, and distance learning. Classroom specific programming sought to improve teacher-student classroom interaction and resolve issues that affected the teacher-student relationship.

In the 1960s, overhead projectors were introduced into classrooms. Roger Apeldoorn invested on the machines (Mango, 2015). In the education sectors, the device was sold mainly to teachers. The methods allowed the teacher to write on a clean piece of film and projected the work on a screen. Teachers found it easier to teach a subject such as mathematics as they could resolve the problem on a clear piece of films within a classroom as students watched.

From the development of overhead projectors came the handled calculators and Scantron sheets. Jack Kilby, Jerry Merryman and James Van Tassel 1967 invented the first handled calculators. The three were engineers at Texas Instruments (Psiropoulos et al., 2016). A handheld calculator had a battery as the sources of power and an integrated circuit that allowed the execution of various mathematical problems based on the installed software. At the time of introducing calculators to schools, teachers were reluctant to permit their use in the classrooms for fear that high students could forget how to perform simple mathematical problems. From 1972, high school students were allowed to have pocket scientific calculators for use in classrooms and outside for any academic work. The calculators were the first electronic equipment that both student and teacher had (Wang, Teng, & Chen, 2015).

All the others were only for teachers and used them within a classroom to teach. Several teachers and all students at a school could use one equipment. Calculators changed the sharing situation, allowing each student to have their equipment. The United States Department of Education reports on education indicates that with the evolution of the tools used in classrooms, learning becomes fun and many students joined high schools. It provides figures that show high school enrollment in early 1900 was 1992, but the numbers increased by ninety-five percent by 1992 (Managuerra & Petecz, 2011). With the increased number of student teachers, needed better tools that guide facilitates easier interaction with students. Personal computers were established as the best device that could allow better student-teacher interaction. Portable computers were very critical in changing the classroom. They allowed students to own personal devices, they could use to relate to teachers. When IBM manufactured the first portable computer in 1981, many people claimed it would significantly influence the education sector. A story appeared in the Time Magazine even recognized personal computers as the “man of the year ” in 1982 (Lin & Nzai, 2014). The magazine identified the benefits of personal computers in high school education and recommended that the use of computers would drive subsequent great innovations within the education system.

Apple Computer Inc. released the first personal digital assistants in 1993. The devices become central in daily human activities. The machines quickly became part of the learning tools used in many classrooms. By 2009, nearly ninety-seven percent of classes in the United States of America had one or more computers (Khaddage & Zeidan, 2012). Of the total computers in classrooms, ninety-three had access to the internet. Still, in 2009, available evidence indicates for every five students one personal portable computer was allocated to them. The technology evolved allowing the production of tablets with iPad being the most popular.

IPad for use in classrooms had various features that made them be easily integrated with classes (Psiropoulos et al., 2016). First, the devices were portable hence allowed students to carry them around with ease. Secondly, the iPad had superior presentation abilities. Students could watch video images or listen to audio content related to their learning. IPads have made classrooms a hotbed of technological innovations with various tech developers focusing on coming up with better features that will aid in education. IPads allow for biometric identification making them ideal for use in classrooms where different students congregate (Hargis, Cavanaugh, Kamali, & Soto, 2014). The biometric technology of the iPad allows the use of certain physical features or behavioral traits to identify and will enable the usage of the device. Hence, students cannot confuse their devices with those of others. Currently, development in artificial features of the invention is allowing the altering of course material to meet individual student needs based on captured biometric signals.

Secondly, iPads have enabled the development and application of augmented reality glasses in the learning process (Wang, Teng, & Chen, 2015). Technology positively affects the learning process by providing a real interactive learning process. IPad also has better communication and sharing abilities that are more relevant in modern teaching and learning. IPad has multi-touch surface features that allow students to relate and share educational content with other students in the classroom much easier (Clark, Austin, & Craike, 2015). Thomas Edison is on record saying that one-time books will be obsolete in classes and scholars will be taught through the eye. Use of iPad in classrooms is confirming the statement. Today, iPads are replacing hard copy books. Students can take notes and carry out all other learning activities using their iPad. Teachers also share learning materials through the iPad. Some institutions have also developed models that allow teachers to administer exams and receive student reports using iPads.

Benefits of iPad in Education
Use of iPads within a classroom has many advantages. The benefits make many learning institutions consider having iPads as an integral learning tool in the classroom (Nooriafshar, 2011). The first benefit of the iPad in classrooms is that they avail information at students’ fingertips. IPad enables access to volumes of books in virtual libraries. Students are exposed to global information and content while seated in classrooms something that enhances their learning process. Students cannot have all the books they wish to have at a school physically (O`Malley, et al., 2013).

Furthermore, some schools do not have well-equipped libraries; hence high school students are not exposed to the latest learning materials. IPads have helped overcome the problem of learning materials in schools by allowing students access-learning materials online. Students can share learning materials in electronic format with much ease. IPads also have access to the internet hence enable students to find information on a choice from the internet (Vandermeer, Beamish, Milford, & Lang, 2015). Students can research with much ease using iPads as before the introduction of iPads. The quality of student work has been enhanced with the use of tablets.

The second benefit of using iPads in classrooms is that they connect the student to their counterpart across the world, hence enabling the sharing of content that enriches their understanding (Flower, 2014). Students can video conference and carry out joint studies with their fellow students’ miles apart sharing of knowledge leads to a better understanding of the facts. IPad allows the installation of applications or access to sites that can teach children various concepts with ease. For example, students with iPads can access sites such as Glovico that enable students to learn multiple languages (Clark, Austin, & Craike, 2015). The sites allow children to learn new learning or learn various concepts with ease in languages they understand better. IPads have increased the contact time between teachers and students (Fagerland, 2012). Teachers can offer personalized teaching programs to meet individual student needs when using iPads as opposed to when they are not related to the students without the devices. It has been established that students prefer to connect with teachers through electronic devices such as iPads as opposed to physical approaching teachers for assistance.

Another benefit of using iPads is their ability to facilitate or integrate educational games and simulations in the learning process. Many games that enable student have been developed over the years. Through the games, students can grasp various skills and competencies that make them better adapted to perform different tasks in the real world situation (Hargis, Cavanaugh, Kamali, & Soto, 2014). IPads have made learning more fun than before. They help students develop various abilities with ease. In the case of experiments, iPads for use in classrooms are designed with features that allow students to simulate the events hence gain more in-depth understanding. IPads will enable the coding of audio and video clips those students can play later to obtain a more profound understanding of an issue. Many web-based science and math simulation sites have been developed that allow high school students to learn the subjects much more comfortable. Teachers’ interaction with students has significantly been enhanced with the use of iPads in learning (Clark, Austin & Craike, 2015). The devices have enabled achieve tremendous improvement in the teaching of technical subjects. Schools that integrate the use of iPads in classrooms have reported improved performance in the subjects.

The study will base its findings on primary and secondary information collected. The researcher wishes to gather as much information about the topic as possible. The sample for participation in the study will vary and will be selected through consideration. Participants for the study will be chosen from various fields related to education. Use of IPads has become a common practice in many civilizations. The sample will, therefore, be selected from multiple backgrounds. The researcher wishes to pick five people from different backgrounds, specialization, and settings. In the United States of America, the sample will be selected from both public and private institutions. Also, the study will require the input of both educationist and students from urban, semi-urban and rural areas. The decision to sample participants from multiple settings has been informed by the needs to ensure the researcher captures the contribution of IPads in improving the quality of education. Parents will also take part in the study. Parents with children who use iPads in school and those whose children are not allowed or have not incorporated the use of tablets in classroom learning will be reviewed. Educations experts and teachers will be contacted to give their insight on how iPads are changing the classroom. They will be required to provide information on how the use of iPads has contributed to better learning practices that promote the quality of education. Participants will also vary in age, so long as they have a relationship with high school education.

The study will have both a dependent and independent variable. The independent variable will be the effectiveness of iPad education. Dependent variable will include the quality of education when using iPads in classrooms among others. The data collection process will be designed in a way that does not require informants to disclose personal identity. Revealing the identity of informants might compromise the analysis process by allowing for bias of the data. The researcher understands the importance of carrying out independent studies and not being influenced in making determinations based on assumptions.

The researcher will require books, pens, audio recorders and cameras for data collection. Critical methods for use in data collection will include interviews, questionnaires, observation and collection of data from secondary sources. Pen and paper will be essential in recording significant points of a discussion. Furthermore, to ensure all details are captured, the researcher will use a tape recorder to file proceeding of an interview. The debate can be played later by the researcher enabling him or her capture information that might have been missed during the discussion. Cameras will be used to take pictures of students in a classroom who are using iPads in a classroom for learning purposes.

The study will follow a systematic process. The researcher will develop questions that will guide data collection. The researcher will then identify informants to take part in the study. The researcher will establish contact will the respondents. All respondents will take part in the study voluntarily. They will be notified in advance about the research and even given questions before the actual meeting with the researcher. During the sessions, the researcher will introduce himself or herself to the informant and how the study is essential. The research will then proceed where the researcher will ask questions and collect responses from the informants. Different respondents will be contacted on different days. Enough time will be allocated to data collection to ensure as much information is obtained.

The researcher`s choice to use interviews, questionnaires, and observation to collect information related to the topic is based on merits associated with the methods of data collection. Meetings allow the researcher and the informants hence can obtain more information than expected (Fagerland, 2012). During their interaction, the researcher will be able to seek clarification on issues that are not clear. Interviews are a reliable source of data collection. They help in gathering reliable information that will enrich the study. Questionnaires will be critical in the collection of information from informants who are far from the researcher. The inquiries will be sent via mail. Observation will enable the researcher to see how the use of iPad has enriched classroom learning and compare it with the situation in classes that have not to embrace the use of iPads.

T-test will be used to determine how to use iPads in the classroom has improved the quality of education. T-test will be used to determine the difference in the quality of education in classes that have embraced the use of iPads and those that have not adopted the use of iPads (Laken, 2013). T-test will also be used to determine the change in the quality of education from when students embraced the use of iPads to when the use of iPads in the classroom had not to be adopted (Laken, 2017). T-test will be critical in determining the impact of iPads in promoting the quality of education and promoting better teacher-student classroom interaction.

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