formally the Republic of Ecuador, is a state in northwestern South America at the equator. It borders Colombia and Peru.
The country is named after the equator, which cuts through the country northern part. The border with Peru has long been contentious and border disputes have occurred (a significant part of the Amazon region was ceded to Peru in 1942).
Those who write their research papers on Ecuador should know that the Republic of Ecuador was one of three countries that emerged when Gran Colombia fell apart in 1830.
The others were Colombia and Venezuela, while Panama’s independence from Colombia in the early 1900s. Between 1904 and 1942, Ecuador lost territories in several disputes with neighboring countries. A border war with Peru flared up in 1995, but was dissolved in 1999. Ecuador was part of the Inca Empire and Quito was the capital of the kingdom then.
When the Spaniards conquered the Inca Empire they hit hard the Indians in Ecuador.
Ecuador has great climatic variations, depending on the height above sea level, and consists of three distinct types of landscape: the coastal plain, the Andes north-south mountain ranges and plains east of the mountains. At the Pacific Ocean lies a fertile coastal land (la Costa) with Guayas River delta.
The central highlands (Sierra) is met by Andean forested backbones Vast cordilleran and East cordilleran, framing a vast plateau at over 2000 m altitude.
The mountain ranges have peaks up to 6000 m and there are many volcanoes, including the extinct Chimborazo (6310 m) and Cotopaxi (5897 m), the world’s highest active volcano. At higher elevations in the Andes superseded the tropical and subtropical forests of grassy plains with low vegetation. Above these the tundra goes and, in areas over 5,000 m, the eternal snow. The third natural region is the vast lowlands east of the Andes (El Oriente), part of the Amazon Basin. It is covered by a species-rich tropical rain forests and drained by tributaries of the Amazon River. Here is a warm and humid climate with high rainfall. Andean highlands is temperate, generally pleasant climate with slight variations. The tropical climate on the coast are moderated by the cold Humboldt Current. The periodic behavior of warm current El Niño causes disasters (flooding, fish kills, etc.).
Ecuador are frequently affected by severe earthquakes, volcanic activities.
The climate in Ecuador is extremely diverse. In the lowlands on the Pacific coast and in the Amazon basin, the climate is tropical. The highlands is temperate. The temperature in the capital city of Quito (2800 m asl) moves, year round, from 10 degrees at night to 21-22 degrees, at most, on the day.
On the coast, the climate is humid in the north, the Colombian border, and then becomes drier the further south you move, heading for the Peruvian desert.
Among Ecuador’s environmental problems can be mentioned deforestation that causes soil erosion, water pollution, and pollution from the oil industry that threatens ecologically sensitive areas in the Amazon region. The Galapagos Islands are also suffering from different kinds of environmental problems due to growing local population (immigration from the mainland) and pressure from tourism.
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