Repellent (from Latin repellere drive off, push back) is a drug designated to be perceived by an organism through the sense of smell and discourage it without killing it.
Repellents are used against different organisms, which are considered by users as “pests” or unwanted organisms in a particular place. The target organisms today are arthropods, fish, mammals or humans into account.
To write a descent research paper on the topic you should know that mosquito repellent is a group of repellents that are mainly used against blood-sucking, disease-carrying arthropods such as mosquitoes, horse-flies, and ticks. They are designed to keep off these insects, especially humans and animals, rarely of plants.
As natural repellents essential oils of various representatives of the Lamiaceae (mainly basil, mint, lavender, sage or thyme), the myrtle (eucalyptus, cloves, and tea tree), the aromatic grasses (citronella, lemongrass, and palmarosa) and geraniums and cedars are used. The deterrent effect of essential oils is only short, especially when they are used in dilution. The study conducted in 2004 included five repellents, whose main active ingredients were blends of essential oils. The repellents were either completely ineffective or protected an average of less than an hour against mosquito bites. In the tests in 2010, five products were also examined based on essential oils. An agent with geraniol protected against mosquito bites for one to three hours, another blend of essential oils allowed a good two and a half hours. The remaining three products were not effective with less than an hour of the protection. Among the herbal ingredients, which is used in insect repellents, PMD (p-menthane-3,8-diol, also Citriodiol) is most effective. It can provide several hours of protection depending on the formulation. Originally, the essential oils were extracted from the distillation of the lemon eucalyptus residues, it is now often chemically synthesized.
Artificial repellents against arthropods are, for example, diethyl toluamide (DEET), Icaridin (Picaridin) or IR3535 (ethyl butylacetylaminopropionate).
Depending on the product and formulation, time of the protection could be observed for several hours against mosquitoes. These repellent preparations for use on the skin are the product in form solution, aerosol spray, pump spray, foam, pen, roller, emulsion, gel, and as impregnated wipes on the market. The main products – solutions, sprays and emulsions – are based on alcoholic or aqueous-alcoholic solutions or cosmetic emulsions. Nourishing and moisture-binding substances and perfume components improve the cosmetic properties.
For dogs, insecticides are especially effective against fleas and ticks, as well as arthropods pyrethroi and permethrin. Pyrethroids are synthetically produced variants of pyrethrum, which occurs naturally in chrysanthemums. Mosquito nets are also used to make arthropod deterrent garments.
Repellents against arthropods place in regions with a high risk of transmission of pathogens is an important preventive measure against infections caused by mosquito. In the temperate zones of Europe, the use of repellents against ticks is next to almost complete coverage of the skin by clothing and TBE vaccination.
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