is the study of alleged paranormal phenomena. The study objects include extra sensory perception (ESP), psychokinesis, and consciousness surviving after death. Para psychologists call these phenomena psi, a neutral term that does not stipulate any causes of the phenomena or experiences of it.
Parapsychological research includes a variety of methods, including laboratory and field studies, and is conducted at a number of universities and independent institutions worldwide. Such research are typically published in journals such as Journal of Parapsychology and the European Journal of Parapsychology, but has also appeared in journals such as Psychological Bulletin, Foundations of Physics, and the British Journal of Psychology.
Parapsychological experiments have been conducted with random number of generators to find evidence of psychokinesis, with Ganzfeld methodology for testing the extra sensory perception and the U.S. government has investigated the existence of remote viewing.
Parapsychologists have, based on this research, compiled a series of meta-studies combining data from previous studies. Several of these statistical analyzes have been published for a wider academic circuit in scientific journals and has caused discussion and debate.
Parapsychology conducted with scientific method is perceived as marginal science because it involves hypothesis testing that do not fit into the established science theoretical models.
Scientists psychologists Ray Hyman and James Alcock, among others, are critical both to parapsychology methods and results. The skeptical scholars believe that the apparent experimental successes are explained by methodological shortcomings rather than the parapsychologists proposed anomalies. Some critics also argue that parapsychology go across the border to be pseudoscience. So far, no evidence for the existence of paranormal phenomena established accepted by science. Ganzfeld experiments have proved to be so promising that parapsychology is a candidate for social science acceptance increased significantly.
Max Dessoir coined he term in 1889. It was taken over by J. B. Rhine in the 30th century to replace termenpsychical research in order to indicate the movement against laboratory experiments in the study of the phenomena.
Criticism of parapsychology begins by asserting that extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidences. Proponents of hypotheses that go against centuries of scientific research must provide extraordinary evidence if their hypotheses must be worthy attention. Many reviewers of parapsychology maintain that the overall amount of evidence is done without proper procedure or is of bad quality. In their perspective, they have not brought decisive results in the parapsychological field at all. They cite instances of fraud, falsified studies, a psychological need of mysticism, and cognitive biases as ways to explain the parapsychological results.
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