Solar system is defined as the gravitational system of the Sun. The solar system includes the sun, orbiting by planets and their natural satellites, the dwarf planets and other small bodies such as comets, asteroids, and meteoroids, and the total of all gas and dust particles attracted and held together by the sun gravitational field. The Solar System also includes the Earth.
Those who are about to write their research paper on Solar system it is important to know that the central star of the solar system is the sun.
It is followed by the terrestrial planets:
which make up the inner part of the planetary system. The outer part consist of the gas planets:
In addition to dwarf planets, there are millions of asteroids (also called planetoids or minor planets) and comets, which are primarily found in three small areas of the solar system: the asteroid belt between the inner and the outer planets, the Kuiper Belt beyond the outer planets, and the Oort Cloud on the very outside.
Within the area dominated by the individual planets, there often are smaller celestial body orbiting companions. After the well-known moon of the earth, they are also analogous as moons, as well as called a satellite or satellites. Down to the Earth’s Moon and Pluto moon Charon, they are much smaller than their main body at least for the planets and dwarf planets in general. Moonless exceptions among the planets are Mercury and Venus. A definitely lower limit size, from the one as with the constituents of the rings no longer speaks of a moon of the gas giant planets, has not yet been officially defined.
The sun makes up 99.86 percent of the total mass of the system. Even its diameter is about 1.39 million kilometers far greater than the diameter of all other objects in the system. The largest of these objects are the eight planets, the four moons of Jupiter, Ganymede, Callisto, Europa and Io (the Galilean moons), Saturn’s moon Titan and the Earth’s moon.
Two-thirds of the remaining mass of 0.14 percent is accounted for by Jupiter.
As a result of the formation of the solar system all the planets, dwarf planets, and the asteroid belt move in a retrograde orbit around the sun. Most of the larger moons also movie in this direction to their main body. Also, the rotation of most major bodies of the solar system is in retrograde motion. Of the planets, only Venus rotates opposite, and the rotation axis of Uranus lies nearly in its orbital plane.
The sun next individual star is the red dwarf Proxima Centauri. Its distance to the solar system is about 4.22 light-years or 268,000 AE. The closest planetary system is Alpha Centauri at 4.34 light years (1.33 pc) distance, probably gravitationally bound to the Proxima Centauri.
Main components of Alpha Centauri are two sun-like stars one of which is orbited by a planetary companion, discovered in 2012.
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